Need of Java's "more precise rethrow in exceptions"

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I am having trouble understanding how precise rethrow works in Java 7 and later versions. As pointed out in, in Java 7 and later versions we can use the throws clause, in a method declaration, with a comma-separated list of specific exceptions that the method could throw. If all these exceptions are subtypes of the general exception java.lang.Exception, we will be able to catch any of them in a catch block that catches this supertype, while letting client code (eg. a caller method) to know which of the possible subtypes exceptions actually occurred.

Initially, I thought that in order to let know client code which exception actually occurred, we needed to specify the list of specific exceptions in the throws clause. Nevertheless, in the following example the client code (the main() method) seems able to retrieve that information, even if we only specify the exception java.lang.Exception in the throws clause of the called method. Therefore, my question is:

Why the following code outputs the same, regardless of whether the throws clause of the method runException() is throws ExceptionA, ExceptionB or throws Exception ?

I am using Oracle JVM-12 in Eclipse. Thanks in advance!

class ExceptionA extends Exception{}
class ExceptionB extends Exception{}

public class RethrowingAndTypeChecking{
    public static void runException(char what) throws Exception{
    //public static void runException(char what) throws ExceptionA, ExceptionB{
            if(what == 'A') 
                throw new ExceptionA();
            else if (what == 'B')
                throw new ExceptionB();
        catch(Exception e){
            throw e;

    public static void main (String args[]){
        char ch;
        for (int i=0;i<2;i++) {
            if(i==0) ch='A';
            else ch = 'B';

            catch(ExceptionA e){
                System.out.print("In main(), 'catch(ExceptionA e){}', caught exception: " + e.getClass());
            catch(ExceptionB e){
                System.out.print("In main(), 'catch(ExceptionB e){}', caught exception: " + e.getClass());
            catch(Exception e){
                System.out.print("In main(), 'catch(Exception e){}', caught exception: " + e.getClass());


In main(), 'catch(ExceptionA e){}', caught exception: class ExceptionA
In main(), 'catch(ExceptionB e){}', caught exception: class ExceptionB

What you're missing is the case where you need to handle those possible exceptions in different ways. Your code is catching individual exceptions, but it is, roughly speaking, performing the same action.

If you were to handle ExceptionA in a considerably different way from how you handle ExceptionB, then catching the broad Exception would not allow you to do that specifically:

catch(Exception e){
    // something unexpected happened
    // e could be an ExceptionA problem
    // e could be an ExceptionB problem
    // e could be any other unchecked exception

When the catch(Exception e){} block is entered, the exception could pretty much be anything, but you have only one generic code block to handle it.

Beside this, if the method you're calling declares specific checked exceptions, then the compiler can help you handle only those exceptions, thus adding to the predictability of the code

} catch(ExceptionA e){
    // code specific to handling ExceptionA problems
} catch(ExceptionB e){
    // code specific to handling ExceptionB problems

} catch(ExceptionC e){ //will not compile, because not declared by runException
    // code specific to handling ExceptionB problems

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These throws declarations are so that you list more explicitly what happens out of the method. Otherwise this is ordinary polymorphism: you use base class to combine in multiple subclasses, however you are definitely not changing the instances, this is why at runtime in both cases the exceptions are resolved to their concrete classes.

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As a rule, you should never catch (Exception ex). Because this will catch RuntimeExceptions too. It sometimes makes sense to catch (Throwable t) or to use Thread.setDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler to customize your uncaught exception handler to catch exceptions and then display them to the user. Sometimes I will catch an Exception, wrap it in a RuntimeException (or an Error) and throw that

When it comes to exceptions, you should really only be catching them when you can do something with them, or when you want to make sure that an exception doesn't cause the rest of the method to not process.

Personally I divide exceptions into 3 types

  1. Problems in your code: This is something for you to fix
  2. Problems with the user: For instance if you tell them to enter a number and they enter 'a', that's the user's error
  3. "Friend" Exceptions: SocketException, for instance, is an example of this. If the socket closes and you have a thread waiting on input on it, it will throw this Exception, releasing the thread and letting you do clean-up on the socket.

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Quoting @Carlos Heuberger, my code outputs the same, regardless of whether the throws clause of the method runException() is throws ExceptionA, ExceptionB or throws Exception because:

the run-time type of the exception is used to select the catch clause: see 14.20.1. Execution of try - catch

Whatever the exception reference type (in this case ExceptionA, ExceptionB or Exception) used to refer to the exception object thrown by method runException(), such method will throw objects of type either ExceptionA or ExceptionB. These objects will be assignment compatible with the catch parameters of the first two catch of the main() method.

After paragraphs 8.4.6, 11.2.3 and 14.20.1 of the Java Language Specification, I understood that what we actually specify in a throws clause of a method signature is the list of the exception reference types that will be assignment compatible with any possible exception object thrown from the method (given a class reference type we can make it point to instance objects of itself or to instance objects of its subclasses, not superclasses ). That tells any other caller method what exceptions it may have to deal with when invoking the method with the throws clause. In my code example, the advantage of using the clause throws ExceptionA, ExceptionB is that I will not need to catch java.lang.Exception in the main(). In fact, if I choose clause throws Exception in method runException() and delete the cath(Exception) block from the main() I will get a compile-time error. This is because even if we will be throwing ExceptionA or ExceptionB objects at run-time, the compiler will understand that method runException() may throw out an exception object of type Exception, which will not be assignment compatible with any of the catch parameters in the main() (Exception is a superclass of both ExceptionA and ExceptionB).

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  • I don't think I understand your question. The catch that is the most specific is going to be the one that is executed.
  • quick answer: the run-time type of the exception is used to select the catch clause: see 14.20.1. Execution of try - catch
  • @CarlosHeuberger, Do you mean that the catch block that is executed in the main() is the first-found which defines in its parameter an exception reference type that can point to the reference object being thrown from method runException() ? That can be an answer to my question, because the method runException() will always throw objects of either type ExceptionA or ExceptionB, regardless of the reference type used to point to them (i.e. java.lang.Exception or ExceptionA or ExceptionB).
  • yes, or see specification: "if the run-time type of V is assignment compatible with (§5.2) a catchable exception class of any catch clause of the try statement, then the first (leftmost) such catch clause is selected." - important is the run-time type, not the type specified in throws declaration
  • @CarlosHeuberger, I think I got it. Thanks for addressing me to paragraph 14.20.1 of the Java Specification. In addition to that paragraph I cleared my doubts after paragraphs 8.4.6 and 11.2.3. Could you please post your comments as an answer so I can accept it as the one solving my problem ?
  • The exception could be pretty much anything as you say, but inside the main() I am able to spot exactly which one occurred, as can be seen from the different strings printed. Therefore, it seems to me that I still could potentially handle those possible exceptions in different ways, as you say. Could you show me an example in which a code similar to mine wouldn’t be able to spot which exception occurred (and therefore couldn’t handle it properly) ? or may be an example illustrating the limitations of the way in which I spot the exception?
  • @gambarimas87 It's not because the more general exception would make it impossible to handle specific errors, it's rather because that becomes messy very quickly. The intent of the exception hierarchy is to have handling code based on the exception type alone. That's why Java compiler and runtime are very systematic about exception blocks. In your case, for example, you would have to read the exception object's message property to decide what action to perform... of course you can do that, but the language allows you to design better based on exception types only.