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First of all, here's my test code, I'm using python 3.2.x:
class account: def __init__(self): pass class bank: def __init__(self): self.balance = 100000 def balance(self): self.balance def whitdraw(self, amount): self.balance -= amount def deposit(self, amount): self.balance += amount
when I do:
a = account() a.bank.balance
I expected to get the value of balance returned, instead I get the function "balance", why is this? It returns the value of balance when I do:
class bank: def __init__(self): self.balance = 100000 def balance(self): self.balance def whitdraw(self, amount): self.balance -= amount def deposit(self, amount): self.balance += amount a = bank() a.balance
So I want to know why this is and it would be great if someone could come up with a way to give me the value of balance in the nested version.
My version of your code, with comments:
# # 1. CamelCasing for classes # class Account: def __init__(self): # 2. to refer to the inner class, you must use self.Bank # 3. no need to use an inner class here self.bank = self.Bank() class Bank: def __init__(self): self.balance = 100000 # 4. in your original code, you had a method with the same name as # the attribute you set in the constructor. That meant that the # method was replaced with a value every time the constructor was # called. No need for a method to do a simple attribute lookup. This # is Python, not Java. def withdraw(self, amount): self.balance -= amount def deposit(self, amount): self.balance += amount a = Account() print(a.bank.balance)
(Tutorial) Inner/Nested Classes in Python, Nesting a class doesn't reduce nor increase execution efficiency. It may alter maintenance and understanding efficiency. The nested class becomes just another It's Never Too Late to Learn a New Skill! Learn to Code and Join Our 45+ Million Users. Learning to Code Shouldn't Be Painful. Start Your Coding Journey with Codecademy Pro.
There are several problems:
- You're using the name
balancefor both the data member and for the function.
- You're missing a
balance()operates on an instance of
bank. There is no instance in
a.bankrefers to the inner class itself.
Is it a good practice to make nested class in python?, An inner class or nested class is a defined entirely within the body of another class. If an object is created using a class, the object inside the Learn Python Like a Pro. From The Basics All The Way to Creating your own Apps and Games! Join Over 50 Million Students Already Learning Online With Udemy
a.bank is the class (not instance) since you've never created an instance of the bank on
a. So if
a.bank is a class,
a.bank.balance is a method bound to that class.
This works however:
class account: def __init__(self): self.bank = account.bank() class bank: def __init__(self): self.balance = 100000 def whitdraw(self, amount): self.balance -= amount def deposit(self, amount): self.balance += amount a = account() print a.bank.balance
Of course, as you show working code without nested classes, It really begs the question about why you want to use nested classes for this. I would argue that the non-nested version is much cleaner.
Inner classes - Python Tutorial, If you define a class inside another class then the nested class that is defined insider another class is Inner or Nested classes are not the most commonly used feature in Python. But, it can be a good feature to implement code. The code is straightforward to organize when you use the inner or nested classes. 3. Coding Inner Class. Implementing the inner or nested classes is not difficult. You can see the structure of the code here. You can access the inner class in the outer class using the self keyword.
Nested or Inner Classes in Python, A nested class can be created and used outside the class that it contains by fully qualifying its name: #!/usr/bin/python3 class TQ84(): class Nested(): def Nested classes seems so unpythonic, even if considered as factories. But to answer your question: There simply is no c5.a (instance of C.B). In the init-method of C.B you add to the CLASS C.A an attribute a, but not to C.B! The class A does already have an attribute a, if instantiated! But the object of class B (and even the class) doesn't!
Inner classes in Python, Python Class Inside Class: I wanna show you, when and why you should use inner classes or nested classes in Python? In most programs Nested or Inner Classes in Python 1. Introduction A nested or inner class is contained within another class. This could be for reasons of encapsulation, 2. Implementing an Iterator without an Inner Class Let us examine the use of an inner class to implement an iterator. An 3. Making the
Python: nested classes, But this can not work. The only solution is to instance outer class again in inner class . It will make the code looks like nested class, but actually An inner class or nested class is a defined entirely within the body of another class. If an object is created using a class, the object inside the root class can be used. A class can have more than one inner classes, but in general inner classes are avoided. Related Course: Python Programming Bootcamp: Go from zero to hero. Inner class example
- May be a.bank.balance() (note: trailing brackets) will return correct value?
- TypeError: ret_balance() takes exactly 1 argument (0 given)
- Don't you need an instance of bank? i.e., in the
account, you need something like
self.my_bank = bank(), I think. Then check with
a = account()and
balance = a.my_bank.balanceshould be 100000.
- You need to read a Python tutorial. See for instance docs.python.org/3/tutorial/classes.html
- There's almost never any need to nest class definitions. Certainly, there is no need to do it here.
- changed the balance function's name to ret_balance and added return in it's body, same result though
- reading the other comments I'm convinced you're explanation of WHY it doesn't work is correct, do you have an idea on a way it would work?
- @Daquicker: You need to create an instance of
bankwithin the instance of
account(just make sure the class and the instance don't have the same name).
- Tried that by adding my_bank = bank() to the end of the account class, kinda doesn't work either, gives me this: <bound method bank.ret_balance of <__main__.bank object at 0x02D68E70>>
- allright, found a way, just needed to add the brackets at the end, bumped into another problem though, when I have a = account() and change the value of balance by a.mybank.whitdraw(50000) and then do b = account(), the result of b.mybank.ret_balance also is 50000... while I want it to be 100000
- @Daquicker -- classes are really neat, and nesting them isn't really a problem once you understand python's scoping rules (which is definitely worth investing some time to learn). The main thing that I was trying to point out is that from a program design, it doesn't really make much sense in this case -- Actually, I tend to believe it doesn't make much sense in most cases, but maybe that's just because I haven't met those cases yet ;-). Anyway, this is still useful stuff to work through as an exercise.
- I wanted to nest them because I need more things in account than only a bank and building classes for each major part seemed to be the neatest way to do it... I just want to keep everyhing together so it doesn't get scattered all across the code...