Variable scopes in Python classes

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Declaring a variable in a class (outside of a function): all class functions can access it (basically a public variable)

Declaring a variable inside a function inside a class: only that function can access it (it's in that function's scope)

Declaring a variable with self.(variable name) inside a function inside a class: all class functions can access it (how is this different from global (variable name)?)

And since there is no private/protected, everything is public, so everything accessible from inside a class is accessible from outside the class.

Are there any other nuances I should know, or have I pretty much got it?

9. Classes, Otherwise, all variables found outside of the innermost scope are read-only (an attempt to write to such a variable will simply create a new local  A variable created in the main body of the Python code is a global variable and belongs to the global scope. Global variables are available from within any scope, global and local. Example. A variable created outside of a function is global and can be used by anyone: x = 300. def myfunc ():

Declaring a variable at the top level of the class is like declaring a static or class variable. Qualifying it with self is declaring an instance variable. Class variables can be modified by referring to them by class name (e.g. Class.x = 5) and all instances will inherit these changes. Instance variables are private to an instance and can only be modified by that instance.

You can achieve some level of access control using underscores. See private variables in the Python tutorial. By convention, variables starting with one underscore, e.g. _foo are non-public parts of an API, and names starting with two underscores e.g. __foo will have it's name mangled to be _classname__foo.

Variable scopes in Python classes, Since the listing in your question is not 100% clear, I've decided to explain it with a simple example. It also includes some things like  You can achieve some level of access control using underscores. See private variables in the Python tutorial. By convention, variables starting with one underscore, e.g. _foo are non-public parts of an API, and names starting with two underscores e.g. __foo will have it's name mangled to be _classname__foo. share.

Although answered, let me add some comments to your questions:

declaring a variable in a class (outside of a function) : all class functions can access it (basically a public variable): comment:this is like a static variable and can be called using the class name. These variables are available to all functions, any functions can modify it and print it.

declaring a variable inside a function inside a class : only that function can access it (its in that functions scope): comment: if the variable is declared without self then it is accessible within that function only, kinda local variable. However if it declared using self like self.var= 'somevalue',, then it is accessible via any object but not via the class name.

declaring a variable with self.(variable name) inside a function inside a class : all class functions can access it (how is this different from global (variable name)?): comment: see asnswer in the above part.

and since there is no private / protected, everything is public, so everything accessible from inside a class is accessible from outside the class.: comment: yes, but we can use single underscore to tell world this variable is private but technically that actually doesnt make it private.

Python, Python - Variable Operations Dictionary update · Different ways to access Instance Variable in Python · Python | Accessing variable value from code scope · Print  You now know what Python's scope of variables is, the LEGB rule, and how you should use the global and nonlocal keywords. You'll be able to easily manipulate variables in nested functions, without any problem. To learn more about programming in Python, you should definitely take a look at DataCamp's Intro to Python for Data Science course. It is an interactive course that covers all the basics: from variables and calculations to lists, functions, and packages.

we can use the scope in this for as : case 1: In the Class

class test:
     def __init__(self, a):
          self.__elements = a
     def change_a(self): self.__elements = 5

case 2 : Outside class

t = test(5)

This will access by as object._classname__privatevaribalename

print(t._test__elements)

this will print the change value of a

(Tutorial) Scope of Variables in Python, Scope of Variables in Python. Learn what variable scopes are all about and get familiar with the 'LEGB' rule. You will also deal with scenarios  The scope of a variable in python is that part of the code where it is visible. Actually, to refer to it, you don’t need to use any prefixes then. Let’s take an example, but before let’s revise python Syntax. >>> b=8

Global and local scope of Python variables, my_var = 3. The variable is global because any Python function or class defined in this module or notebook, is able to access this variable. For example:. Class Variables. Class variables are defined within the class construction. Because they are owned by the class itself, class variables are shared by all instances of the class. They therefore will generally have the same value for every instance unless you are using the class variable to initialize a variable. Defined outside of all the methods, class variables are, by convention, typically placed right below the class header and before the constructor method and other methods.

Class variables scope - Python, In exercise https://www.codecademy.com/courses/learn-python-3/lessons/data-​types/exercises/self I am running into a dilemma related to the  In my experience, Python class attributes are a topic that many people know something about, but few understand completely. Python Class Variable vs. Instance Variable: What’s the Difference? A Python class attribute is an attribute of the class (circular, I know), rather than an attribute of an instance of a class.

Python Scope & the LEGB Rule: Resolving Names in Your Code , Comprehension Variables Scope; Exception Variables Scope; Class and Instance Attributes Scope. Using Scope Related Built-In Functions. To rebind variables found outside of the innermost scope, the nonlocal statement can be used; if not declared nonlocal, those variables are read-only (an attempt to write to such a variable will simply create a new local variable in the innermost scope, leaving the identically named outer variable unchanged).

Comments
  • But basically, yes, ypu don't have things like "private" variables by default in Python (I say "by default" because one can use some introspection magic to have private/protected like behavior). Now, why would you need private variables? The convention is that methods/attributes that have their name starting with a single "_" are not public and should not be modified from outside the object. The idea of private vars for obfuscation/security is faulty by nature.
  • Is there a reason why you are not using Test(object)? So does your answer also apply to the new-type classes?
  • @DavorJosipovic there is a thing called Python3.