## Calculating magnetic heading using raw accelerometer and magnetometer data

magnetometer compass algorithm
magnetometer true north
magnetometer aviation
convert microtesla to degrees

I have an accelerometer and magnetometer each producing raw X, Y and Z readouts. From this I need to determine the magnetic heading of an object.

I'm not that great at trig, but I've put together a formula that does respond pretty well to the rotation of the device, but also responds to movement that one would not think is relevant, such as angling the device in such a way that has no impact on the direction it is pointed. Such as laying it flat and "rolling" the device.

I think the formula I have for calculating the magnetic heading is fine, but I think my pitch and roll radians for input are wrong.

So I guess the core of my question (unless someone actually has a formula around that does this), is how do you calculate angles, in radians, using an accelerometer for pitch and roll.

Then secondly, any info on the heading formula itself would be great.

Depending on the accuracy your application requires, you may need to solve several problems:

1. Are the accelerometer axes calibrated? I've seen MEMs accelerometers that had axes that were not mutually perpendicular, and had significantly different response characteristics for each axis (typically X and Y would match, and Z would differ). You will need to synthesize ideal XYZ axes from whatever physical reading your device provides. (Google 'accelerometer calibration'.)

2. Are the magnetometer axes calibrated? Similar problem as above, except much harder to check: It is very difficult to generate uniform calibrated magnetic fields. If you use the ambient geomagnetic field, you will need to carefully control the local magnetism of your work environment and your tools. (Google 'magnetometer calibration'.)

3. After the accelerometer and magnetometer have been individually calibrated, their axes need to be calibrated relative to each other. Since both of these devices are typically soldered to a PCB, there is almost guaranteed to be significant misalignment. In many cases, the board layout and device parameters may not even permit the XYZ axes to correspond with each other! This may be the hardest part to do from a lab perspective, so I'd recommend you do a direct comparison using other hardware that has both kinds of sensors and is already calibrated (such as an iPhone or Android phone - but verify the device before use). Normally, this is accomplished by adjusting the prior two calibration matrices until they generate vectors that are correctly aligned relative to each other.

4. Only after you are generating mutually calibrated magnetic and accelerometer vectors can you apply the solutions suggested by the other respondents.

I've only described the static solution, where both the magnetometer and accelerometer are motionless relative to the local gravitational and magnetic fields. If you need to generate responses in real-time while the system is rapidly moving, you will need to account for the time behavior of each sensor. There are two basic ways to do this: 1) Apply time-domain filters to each sensor so that their outputs share a common time domain (generally adding some delay). 2) Use predictive modeling to modify the sensor outputs in real-time (less delay, but more noise).

I've seen Kalman filters used for such applications, but applying them in a vector domain may require using quaternions instead of Euler matrices. Quaternions are easier to use computationally (fewer operations needed compared to matrices), but I found them to be much more difficult to comprehend and get right.

Or, you may choose a completely different path, and use statistics and data fitting to do all the above work in one giant step. Consider the problem as follows: Given 6 input values (XYZ each from uncalibrated magnetometer and accelerometer) and a reference to the device (assuming it is hand-held, and there is an arrow painted on the case), output a single angle representing the magnetic bearing toward which the arrow on the case is pointing, and the elevation of the arrow relative to the gravity vector (tilt of the case).

Using a calibrated reference device (as mentioned above), pair it with the device to be calibrated, and take a several hundred data points, with the device at different orientations. Then use a powerful math package such a Matlab, MathCAD, R or SciPy to setup and solve the nonlinear equations to create the transformation matrices.

[PDF] Estimation of heading using magnetometer and GPS, magnetic North Pole can easily be calculated by using a it uses the accelerometer data aB and the gyroscope data ωB in order to estimate  Accelerometer Gyroscope Magnetometer Attitude estimation Measured heading Magnetometer disturbances Filter Rotation ~aB!~B q K m~B mm _ m Figure 1.1: The subsystem considered in this thesis. Input is sensor data from accelerom-eter, gyroscope and magnetometer and output is the magnetic heading. 1.3 Problem formulation

I would point to Euler Angles and Roll Pich Yaw.

Magnetometer, The magnetic north is calculated as follows: let sensor = new Magnetometer (); sensor . start (); let heading = Math . atan2 ( sensor . y , sensor . x ) * ( 180 / Math . for which she needs a 3-axis accelerometer. Data from the orientation sensor, which is a fusion of the  If the direction D is less than 0 degrees, add 360 degrees to that value. The compass heading can then be determined by the direction value D: If D is greater than 337.25 degrees or less than 22.5 degrees – North. If D is between 292.5 degrees and 337.25 degrees – North-West.

You're not thinking in enough dimensions. This would be the answer in only 2 dimensions, and it works great if you can find a way to ensure "Z" always aligns with gravity.

```int heading=180-atan2(mag_datX, mag_datY)/0.0174532925; // 0/359=N, 90=E, 180=S, 270=W
```

(if you're reading directly form the device - beware that it probably returns X, Z, Y - not X, Y, Z !)

However - this is not a 2D compass problem - imagine you take the needle out of the compass, balance it so that gravity plays no part in keeping it "level", and you'll find that "north" will point a bit up or down - depending where on earth you are (or, if at the poles, directly up or down!).

So you need to try and compute the THREE DIMENSIONAL vector from all 3 values - which is a matrix operation.

[PDF] Gravity-Based Methods for Heading Computation in , heading is estimated using the gyroscope and/or magnetic sensors. gyroscope measurements with magnetic data, based on correlations Determining the gravity direction based on the accelerometer alone is Starting from the end of the stationary interval at time t = ts, we will integrate the gyro's raw. I require some help calculating the heading relative to magnetic north with this library and an MPU9250. float heading_m = (atan2(IMU.getMagY_uT(), IMU.getMagX_uT()) * 180) / PI; does not work as with other magnetometer examples ( Adafru

US8531180B2, Determining heading using magnetometer data and angular rate data using known mathematical formulations and subtracted from the raw gyro data. The measurement matrix can be the accelerometer measurement matrix, which k into an estimated magnetic field vector in a reference global coordinate system using  You can use a three-axis magnetometer just like a three-axis accelerometer to determine the local magnetic vector, like the local gravity vector. Then you can use changes in the vector to determine your new orientation.

Arduino | LSM303 Accelerometer + Compass Breakout, To get started with the LSM303, you'll need to install the accelerometer library and the You will see heading calculations printed out to the serial monitor. can also get the raw (non unified values) for */; /* the last data sample as follows. You cannot calculate Heading with Gyro+Magnetometer unless you know initial state of device. You have to try Accelerometer+Magnetometer . You can get heading values from rotation-matrix' or yaw` component from Motion sensor API of Android/IOS device.

Compensating for Tilt, Hard-Iron, and Soft-Iron Effects , When implementing a compass system, it's important to understand the types use of dual-axis magnetometer and triaxial accelerometer sensors available elevation, bank angle, and hard- and soft-iron effects on heading calculations, would simply apply the arctan function to raw magnetometer data. Subject: Re: [MPU-9150] Magnetometer calibration and heading (yaw) Kris, will have a thought on that. The link I said has a good solution to remove both hard-iron and soft-iron bias. Also quite quick to implement. My question holds. the yaw (headings) gives neither a 360º nor a -180º to 180º output but rather a almost random result.