C: socket connection timeout

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I have a simple program to check if a port is open, but I want to shorten the timeout length on the socket connection because the default is far too long. I'm not sure how to do this though. Here's the code:

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    u_short port;                /* user specified port number */
    char addr[1023];             /* will be a copy of the address entered by u */
    struct sockaddr_in address;  /* the libc network address data structure */
    short int sock = -1;         /* file descriptor for the network socket */

    if (argc != 3) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage %s <port_num> <address>", argv[0]);
        return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    address.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(argv[2]); /* assign the address */
    address.sin_port = htons(atoi(argv[2]));            /* translate int2port num */

    sock = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    if (connect(sock,(struct sockaddr *)&address,sizeof(address)) == 0) {
        printf("%i is open\n", port);
    }  
    close(sock);
    return 0;
}

This article might help:

Connect with timeout (or another use for select() )

Looks like you put the socket into non-blocking mode until you've connected, and then put it back into blocking mode once the connection's established.

void connect_w_to(void) { 
  int res; 
  struct sockaddr_in addr; 
  long arg; 
  fd_set myset; 
  struct timeval tv; 
  int valopt; 
  socklen_t lon; 

  // Create socket 
  soc = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0); 
  if (soc < 0) { 
     fprintf(stderr, "Error creating socket (%d %s)\n", errno, strerror(errno)); 
     exit(0); 
  } 

  addr.sin_family = AF_INET; 
  addr.sin_port = htons(2000); 
  addr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("192.168.0.1"); 

  // Set non-blocking 
  if( (arg = fcntl(soc, F_GETFL, NULL)) < 0) { 
     fprintf(stderr, "Error fcntl(..., F_GETFL) (%s)\n", strerror(errno)); 
     exit(0); 
  } 
  arg |= O_NONBLOCK; 
  if( fcntl(soc, F_SETFL, arg) < 0) { 
     fprintf(stderr, "Error fcntl(..., F_SETFL) (%s)\n", strerror(errno)); 
     exit(0); 
  } 
  // Trying to connect with timeout 
  res = connect(soc, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, sizeof(addr)); 
  if (res < 0) { 
     if (errno == EINPROGRESS) { 
        fprintf(stderr, "EINPROGRESS in connect() - selecting\n"); 
        do { 
           tv.tv_sec = 15; 
           tv.tv_usec = 0; 
           FD_ZERO(&myset); 
           FD_SET(soc, &myset); 
           res = select(soc+1, NULL, &myset, NULL, &tv); 
           if (res < 0 && errno != EINTR) { 
              fprintf(stderr, "Error connecting %d - %s\n", errno, strerror(errno)); 
              exit(0); 
           } 
           else if (res > 0) { 
              // Socket selected for write 
              lon = sizeof(int); 
              if (getsockopt(soc, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ERROR, (void*)(&valopt), &lon) < 0) { 
                 fprintf(stderr, "Error in getsockopt() %d - %s\n", errno, strerror(errno)); 
                 exit(0); 
              } 
              // Check the value returned... 
              if (valopt) { 
                 fprintf(stderr, "Error in delayed connection() %d - %s\n", valopt, strerror(valopt) 
); 
                 exit(0); 
              } 
              break; 
           } 
           else { 
              fprintf(stderr, "Timeout in select() - Cancelling!\n"); 
              exit(0); 
           } 
        } while (1); 
     } 
     else { 
        fprintf(stderr, "Error connecting %d - %s\n", errno, strerror(errno)); 
        exit(0); 
     } 
  } 
  // Set to blocking mode again... 
  if( (arg = fcntl(soc, F_GETFL, NULL)) < 0) { 
     fprintf(stderr, "Error fcntl(..., F_GETFL) (%s)\n", strerror(errno)); 
     exit(0); 
  } 
  arg &= (~O_NONBLOCK); 
  if( fcntl(soc, F_SETFL, arg) < 0) { 
     fprintf(stderr, "Error fcntl(..., F_SETFL) (%s)\n", strerror(errno)); 
     exit(0); 
  } 
  // I hope that is all 
}

How to set a socket connection timeout, To resolve this issue, we can use non-blocking socket mode to select the timeout. Hide Shrink Copy Code. bool connect(char *host,int port, int timeout) {  Nov 10, 2014 • C • Network To prevent the connect function from blocking forever, a timeout can be implemented with select . The function below takes the same arguments as connect and in addition a timeout argument, which sets the maximum time to wait to connect.

Set the socket non-blocking, and use select() (which takes a timeout parameter). If a non-blocking socket is trying to connect, then select() will indicate that the socket is writeable when the connect() finishes (either successfully or unsuccessfully). You then use getsockopt() to determine the outcome of the connect():

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    u_short port;                /* user specified port number */
    char *addr;                  /* will be a pointer to the address */
    struct sockaddr_in address;  /* the libc network address data structure */
    short int sock = -1;         /* file descriptor for the network socket */
    fd_set fdset;
    struct timeval tv;

    if (argc != 3) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage %s <port_num> <address>\n", argv[0]);
        return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    port = atoi(argv[1]);
    addr = argv[2];

    address.sin_family = AF_INET;
    address.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(addr); /* assign the address */
    address.sin_port = htons(port);            /* translate int2port num */

    sock = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    fcntl(sock, F_SETFL, O_NONBLOCK);

    connect(sock, (struct sockaddr *)&address, sizeof(address));

    FD_ZERO(&fdset);
    FD_SET(sock, &fdset);
    tv.tv_sec = 10;             /* 10 second timeout */
    tv.tv_usec = 0;

    if (select(sock + 1, NULL, &fdset, NULL, &tv) == 1)
    {
        int so_error;
        socklen_t len = sizeof so_error;

        getsockopt(sock, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ERROR, &so_error, &len);

        if (so_error == 0) {
            printf("%s:%d is open\n", addr, port);
        }
    }

    close(sock);
    return 0;
}

Implement a timeout for C socket connections · Monoxid, Implement a timeout for C socket connections. To prevent the connect function from blocking forever, a timeout can be implemented with select . The function below takes the same arguments as connect and in addition a timeout argument, which sets the maximum time to wait to connect. Sockets do not provide a Connect Timeout when calling the Connect / BeginConnect method while establishing a Synchronous/Asynchronous socket connection. Instead, connect is forced to wait a very long time before an Exception is thrown if the server it tried to connect to is not listening or if there is any network error.

The answers about using select()/poll() are right and code should be written this way to be portable.

However, since you're on Linux, you can do this:

int synRetries = 2; // Send a total of 3 SYN packets => Timeout ~7s
setsockopt(fd, IPPROTO_TCP, TCP_SYNCNT, &synRetries, sizeof(synRetries));

See man 7 tcp and man setsockopt.

I used this to speed up the connect-timeout in a program I needed to patch quickly. Hacking it to timeout via select()/poll() was not an option.

connect( ) timeout, What you are doing is setting the socket to be non blocking, as such connect will immediatly fail but should errno should be set to EINPROGRESS  Setting Socket Timeout? Ask Question Asked 8 years, 1 month ago. Active 8 years, What is the difference between connection and read timeout for sockets? 84.

This one has parametrized ip, port, timeout in seconds, handle connection errors and give you connection time in milliseconds:

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <time.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    struct sockaddr_in addr_s;
    char *addr;
    short int fd=-1;
    int port;
    fd_set fdset;
    struct timeval tv;
    int rc;
    int so_error;
    socklen_t len;
    struct timespec tstart={0,0}, tend={0,0};
    int seconds;

    if (argc != 4) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <ip> <port> <timeout_seconds>\n", argv[0]);
        return 1;
    }

    addr = argv[1];
    port = atoi(argv[2]);
    seconds = atoi(argv[3]);

    addr_s.sin_family = AF_INET; // utilizzo IPv4
    addr_s.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(addr);
    addr_s.sin_port = htons(port);

    clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &tstart);

    fd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
    fcntl(fd, F_SETFL, O_NONBLOCK); // setup non blocking socket

    // make the connection
    rc = connect(fd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr_s, sizeof(addr_s));
    if ((rc == -1) && (errno != EINPROGRESS)) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", strerror(errno));
        close(fd);
        return 1;
    }
    if (rc == 0) {
        // connection has succeeded immediately
        clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &tend);
        printf("socket %s:%d connected. It took %.5f seconds\n",
            addr, port, (((double)tend.tv_sec + 1.0e-9*tend.tv_nsec) - ((double)tstart.tv_sec + 1.0e-9*tstart.tv_nsec)));

        close(fd);
        return 0;
    } /*else {
        // connection attempt is in progress
    } */

    FD_ZERO(&fdset);
    FD_SET(fd, &fdset);
    tv.tv_sec = seconds;
    tv.tv_usec = 0;

    rc = select(fd + 1, NULL, &fdset, NULL, &tv);
    switch(rc) {
    case 1: // data to read
        len = sizeof(so_error);

        getsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ERROR, &so_error, &len);

        if (so_error == 0) {
            clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &tend);
            printf("socket %s:%d connected. It took %.5f seconds\n",
                addr, port, (((double)tend.tv_sec + 1.0e-9*tend.tv_nsec) - ((double)tstart.tv_sec + 1.0e-9*tstart.tv_nsec)));
            close(fd);
            return 0;
        } else { // error
            printf("socket %s:%d NOT connected: %s\n", addr, port, strerror(so_error));
        }
        break;
    case 0: //timeout
        fprintf(stderr, "connection timeout trying to connect to %s:%d\n", addr, port);
        break;
    }

    close(fd);
    return 0;
}

Client TCP/IP Connect and Communication Timeout Options, To set a socket timeout, after connecting to the c-treeACE Server, set the c-tree connection-specific global variable ctsocktimeout to the desired  Simply put, the socket is the end point of communication. In a normal mail delivery, the client socket connects to a listening server socket. And, communication happens once this connection is successful. ‘failed to connect socket connection timed out’ means that the connection to the mail server fails or the mail server can no longer be reached.

Is there anything wrong with Nahuel Greco's solution aside from the compilation error?

If I change one line

// Compilation error
setsockopt(fd, SO_SNDTIMEO, &timeout, sizeof(timeout));

to

// Fixed?
setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, &timeout, sizeof(timeout));

then it seems to work as advertised - socket() returns a timeout error.

Resulting code:

struct timeval timeout;
timeout.tv_sec  = 7;  // after 7 seconds connect() will timeout
timeout.tv_usec = 0;
setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDTIMEO, &timeout, sizeof(timeout));
connect(...)

I'm not versed enough to know the tradeoffs are between a send timeout and a non-blocking socket, but I'm curious to learn.

connect(3): connect socket, The connect() function shall attempt to make a connection on a socket. descriptor for the socket, connect() shall block for up to an unspecified timeout interval  static void ConfigureTcpSocket(Socket^ tcpSocket) { // Don't allow another socket to bind to this port. tcpSocket->ExclusiveAddressUse = true; // The socket will linger for 10 seconds after // Socket.Close is called. tcpSocket->LingerState = gcnew LingerOption(true, 10); // Disable

Overriding the default Linux kernel 20-second TCP socket connect , However, although you should be able to make these timeouts as small as you want, the connect timeout in particular has an effective maximum  If select return indicating an incoming connecting, there is a (short) delay until accept is called. If during this delay the connection is gone, then accept() will block. The only way to manoeuvre around this is to use a non-blocking socket when calling accept().

IO::Socket::Timeout: socket timeout made easy, A network socket is one of the core software components of all modern operating This is an example using AnyEvent , which will set a connection timeout of 0.5 Contrary to implementing a PerlIO layer in C, using the :via layer is rather  Socket Programming in C# Socket programming is a way of connecting two nodes on a network to communicate with each other. Basically, it is a one-way Client and Server setup where a Client connects, sends messages to the server and the server shows them using socket connection.

Example on how to work with a non-blocking connect. Uses fixed , a successful connect, a refused * connect, and a timeout. * * (c) jp@devnull.cz, vlada@devnull.cz */ #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include  If the initiating socket is connection-mode, then connect() shall attempt to establish a connection to the address specified by the address argument. If the connection cannot be established immediately and O_NONBLOCK is not set for the file descriptor for the socket, connect () shall block for up to an unspecified timeout interval until the connection is established.

Comments
  • You added in your answer "fcntl(sock, F_SETFL, O_NONBLOCK)" Note that after this the next socket read becomes also nonblocking!
  • Nice. This is a better suggestion than mine.
  • This is a very good answer, why did you make it community wiki? You should earn some reputation for suggesting the resource.
  • The forum linked to seems to have changed their software, so the link is dead now.
  • Note: although this answer is deemed the right one, caf's solution below not only explains the strategy but provides working code.
  • This works in *nix, but does not work in Windows. In Windows, you determine if the socket is connected by looking at the return value of "select" in your code above. In windows, select returns 1 if the connection completed, or it returns 0 if the connection was not successful. If you look at so_error, then Windows always returns 0, even when the connection failed. That's windows for you, as they say.
  • What if I don't want to use non-blocking mode for other socket operations (like read, write)? Can I clear O_NONBLOCK flag after socket is connected? If it is possible, is It safe?
  • @anton_rh: Yes, it is safe to clear O_NONBLOCK and put the socket back into blocking mode.
  • It is also much better to use poll then select. Nobody should use "select" in new software anymore because it is broken when you increase the number of open file descriptors per process behind a very limited number. Also using SOCK_NONBLOCK directly in the socket call is recommended (maybe also use SOCK_CLOEXEC)
  • if you plan to use the socket in blocking mode, you will make fewer syscalls by implementing the SO_SNDTIMEO solution rather than putting the socket into non-blocking mode, connect and then putting back in blocking mode. Seems a little faster.
  • I prefer the form above with the SOL_SOCKET in the setsockopt.