## Calculating normals in a triangle mesh

face normals

normal vector

glm calculate normal

calculate normal from 3 points

calculate normal of polygon

opengl normal buffer

webgl vertex normals

I have drawn a triangle mesh with 10000 vertices(100x100) and it will be a grass ground. I used gldrawelements() for it. I have looked all day and still can't understand how to calculate the normals for this. Does each vertex have its own normals or does each triangle have its own normals? Can someone point me in the right direction on how to edit my code to incorporate normals?

struct vertices { GLfloat x; GLfloat y; GLfloat z; }vertices[10000]; GLuint indices[60000]; /* 99..9999 98..9998 ........ 01..9901 00..9900 */ void CreateEnvironment() { int count=0; for (float x=0;x<10.0;x+=.1) { for (float z=0;z<10.0;z+=.1) { vertices[count].x=x; vertices[count].y=0; vertices[count].z=z; count++; } } count=0; for (GLuint a=0;a<99;a++){ for (GLuint b=0;b<99;b++){ GLuint v1=(a*100)+b;indices[count]=v1;count++; GLuint v2=(a*100)+b+1;indices[count]=v2;count++; GLuint v3=(a*100)+b+100;indices[count]=v3;count++; } } count=30000; for (GLuint a=0;a<99;a++){ for (GLuint b=0;b<99;b++){ indices[count]=(a*100)+b+100;count++;//9998 indices[count]=(a*100)+b+1;count++;//9899 indices[count]=(a*100)+b+101;count++;//9999 } } } void ShowEnvironment(){ //ground glPushMatrix(); GLfloat GroundAmbient[]={0.0,0.5,0.0,1.0}; glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_AMBIENT,GroundAmbient); glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); glIndexPointer( GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, 0, indices ); glVertexPointer(3,GL_FLOAT,0,vertices); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES,60000,GL_UNSIGNED_INT,indices); glDisableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); glPopMatrix(); }

EDIT 1 Here is the code I have written out. I just used arrays instead of vectors and I stored all of the normals in the struct called normals. It still doesn't work however. I get an unhandled exception at *indices.

struct Normals { GLfloat x; GLfloat y; GLfloat z; }normals[20000]; Normals* normal = normals; //***************************************ENVIRONMENT************************************************************************* struct vertices { GLfloat x; GLfloat y; GLfloat z; }vertices[10000]; GLuint indices[59403]; /* 99..9999 98..9998 ........ 01..9901 00..9900 */ void CreateEnvironment() { int count=0; for (float x=0;x<10.0;x+=.1) { for (float z=0;z<10.0;z+=.1) { vertices[count].x=x; vertices[count].y=rand()%2-2;; vertices[count].z=z; count++; } } //calculate normals GLfloat vector1[3];//XYZ GLfloat vector2[3];//XYZ count=0; for (int x=0;x<9900;x+=100){ for (int z=0;z<99;z++){ vector1[0]= vertices[x+z].x-vertices[x+z+1].x;//vector1x vector1[1]= vertices[x+z].y-vertices[x+z+1].y;//vector1y vector1[2]= vertices[x+z].z-vertices[x+z+1].z;//vector1z vector2[0]= vertices[x+z+1].x-vertices[x+z+100].x;//vector2x vector2[1]= vertices[x+z+1].y-vertices[x+z+100].y;//vector2y vector2[2]= vertices[x+z+1].z-vertices[x+z+100].z;//vector2z normals[count].x= vector1[1] * vector2[2]-vector1[2]*vector2[1]; normals[count].y= vector1[2] * vector2[0] - vector1[0] * vector2[2]; normals[count].z= vector1[0] * vector2[1] - vector1[1] * vector2[0];count++; } } count=10000; for (int x=100;x<10000;x+=100){ for (int z=0;z<99;z++){ vector1[0]= vertices[x+z].x-vertices[x+z+1].x;//vector1x -- JUST ARRAYS vector1[1]= vertices[x+z].y-vertices[x+z+1].y;//vector1y vector1[2]= vertices[x+z].z-vertices[x+z+1].z;//vector1z vector2[0]= vertices[x+z+1].x-vertices[x+z-100].x;//vector2x vector2[1]= vertices[x+z+1].y-vertices[x+z-100].y;//vector2y vector2[2]= vertices[x+z+1].z-vertices[x+z-100].z;//vector2z normals[count].x= vector1[1] * vector2[2]-vector1[2]*vector2[1]; normals[count].y= vector1[2] * vector2[0] - vector1[0] * vector2[2]; normals[count].z= vector1[0] * vector2[1] - vector1[1] * vector2[0];count++; } } count=0; for (GLuint a=0;a<99;a++){ for (GLuint b=0;b<99;b++){ GLuint v1=(a*100)+b;indices[count]=v1;count++; GLuint v2=(a*100)+b+1;indices[count]=v2;count++; GLuint v3=(a*100)+b+100;indices[count]=v3;count++; } } count=30000; for (GLuint a=0;a<99;a++){ for (GLuint b=0;b<99;b++){ indices[count]=(a*100)+b+100;count++;//9998 indices[count]=(a*100)+b+1;count++;//9899 indices[count]=(a*100)+b+101;count++;//9999 } } } void ShowEnvironment(){ //ground glPushMatrix(); GLfloat GroundAmbient[]={0.0,0.5,0.0,1.0}; GLfloat GroundDiffuse[]={1.0,0.0,0.0,1.0}; glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_AMBIENT,GroundAmbient); glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_DIFFUSE,GroundDiffuse); glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); glEnableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY); glNormalPointer( GL_FLOAT, 0, normal); glVertexPointer(3,GL_FLOAT,0,vertices); glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES,60000,GL_UNSIGNED_INT,indices); glDisableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY); glDisableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY); glPopMatrix(); } //***************************************************************************************************************************

**Introduction to Shading (Normals, Vertex Normals and Facing Ratio),** Normals of triangle meshes can also be defined at the triangles vertices, How and when in the program you compute the surface normal at the point you are I'm playing with some terrain generation. I have a triangular mesh that looks OK - that is if I hardcode verticles normals (on this image every single verticle has normal of (0,-1,0) The situation is different when I try to calculate normals normally. I.E.

Per-vertex.

Use cross-products to calculate the face normals for the triangles surrounding a given vertex, add them together, and normalize.

**How to calculate verticle normals of triangular mesh,** It looks like some normals are pointing the wrong way. This means that those triangles aren't wound correctly. As a quick fix you can do: In the case of a cube, the edges and corners are sharp, so each corner has multiple normals (one for each face). In OpenGL, you are limited to one normal per vertex and you are forced to use multiple vertices (one for each normal) for each corner. That’s why it takes 24 vertices to draw a cube instead of 8.

Thumbs up for datenwolf! I completely agree with his approach. Adding the normal vectors of the adjacent triangles for each vertex and then normalising is the way to go. I just want to push the answer a little bit and have a closer look at the particular but quite common case of a **rectangular**, **smooth** mesh that has a **constant x/y step**. In other words, a rectangular x/y grid with a variable height at each point.

Such a mesh is created by looping over x and y and setting a value for z and can represent things like the surface of a hill. So each point of the mesh is represented by a vector

P = (x, y, f(x,y))

where f(x,y) is a function giving the z of each point on the grid.

Usually to draw such a mesh we use a TriangleStrip or a TriangleFan but any technique should give a similar topography for the resulting triangles.

|/ |/ |/ |/ ...--+----U----UR---+--... /| /| 2 /| /| Y / | / | / | / | ^ | / | / | / | / | |/ 1 |/ 3 |/ |/ | ...--L----P----R----+--... +-----> X /| 6 /| 4 /| /| / | / | / | / | | /5 | / | / | / |/ |/ |/ |/ ...--DL---D----+----+--... /| /| /| /|

For a triangleStrip each vertex P=(x0, y0, z0) has 6 adjacent vertices denoted

up = (x0 , y0 + ay, Zup) upright = (x0 + ax, y0 + ay, Zupright) right = (x0 + ax, y0 , Zright) down = (x0 , y0 - ay, Zdown) downleft = (x0 - ax, y0 - ay, Zdownleft) left = (x0 - ax, y0 , Zleft)

where ax/ay is the constant grid step on the x/y axis respectively. On a square grid ax = ay.

ax = width / (nColumns - 1) ay = height / (nRows - 1)

Thus each vertex has 6 adjacent triangles each one with its own normal vector (denoted N1 to N6). These can be calculated using the cross product of the two vectors defining the side of the triangle and being careful on the order in which we do the cross product. If the normal vector points in the Z direction towards you :

N1 = up x left = = (Yup*Zleft - Yleft*Zup, Xleft*Zup - Xup*ZLeft, Xleft*Yup - Yleft*Xup) =( (y0 + ay)*Zleft - y0*Zup, (x0 - ax)*Zup - x0*Zleft, x0*y0 - (y0 + ay)*(x0 - ax) ) N2 = upright x up N3 = right x upright N4 = down x right N5 = downleft x down N6 = left x downleft

And the resulting normal vector for each point P is the sum of N1 to N6. We normalise after summing. It's very easy to create a loop, calculate the values of each normal vector, add them and then normalise. However, as pointed out by Mr. Shickadance, this can take quite a while, especially for large meshes and/or on embedded devices.

If we have a closer look and perform the calculations by hand, we will find out that most of the terms cancel out each other, leaving us with a very elegant and easy to calculate final solution for the resulting vector N. The point here is to speed up calculations by avoiding calculating the coordinates of N1 to N6, doing 6 cross-products and 6 additions for each point. Algebra helps us to jump straight to the solution, use less memory and less CPU time.

I will not show the details of the calculations as it is long but straight-forward and will jump to the final expression of the Normal vector for any point on the grid. Only N1 is decomposed for the sake of clarity, the other vectors look alike. After summing we obtain N which is not yet normalized :

N = N1 + N2 + ... + N6 = .... (long but easy algebra) ... = ( (2*(Zleft - Zright) - Zupright + Zdownleft + Zup - Zdown) / ax, (2*(Zdown - Zup) + Zupright + Zdownleft - Zup - Zleft) / ay, 6 )

There you go! Just normalise this vector and you have the normal vector for any point on the grid, provided you know the Z values of its surrounding points and the horizontal/vertical step of your grid.

Note that this is the weighed average of the surrounding triangles' normal vectors. The weight is the area of the triangles and is already included in the cross product.

You can even simplify it more by only taking into account the Z values of four surrounding points (up,down,left and right). In that case you get :

| \|/ | N = N1 + N2 + N3 + N4 ..--+----U----+--.. = ( (Zleft - Zright) / ax, | /|\ | (Zdown - Zup ) / ay, | / | \ | 2 ) \ | / 1|2 \ | / \|/ | \|/ ..--L----P----R--... /|\ | /|\ / | \ 4|3 / | \ | \ | / | | \|/ | ..--+----D----+--.. | /|\ |

which is even more elegant and even faster to calculate.

Hope this will make some meshes faster. Cheers

**Calculating a Surface Normal,** -space that is perpendicular to two other vectors (determinded by two edges of a face). It is calculated by the cross prduct. A basic use of normals is in shaders e.g. to calculate reflections. – on average, (1 + ε) indices per triangle (assuming long strips) • 2 triangles per vertex (on average) • about 4 bytes per triangle (on average) • total is 20 bytes per vertex (limiting best case) – factor of 3.6 over separate triangles; 1.8 over indexed mesh 29

As simple as it may seem, calculating the normal of a triangle is only part of the problem. The cross product of 2 sides of the polygon is sufficient in triangular cases, unless the triangle is collapsed onto itself and degenerate; in that case there is no one valid normal, so you can select one to your liking.

So why is the normalized cross product only part of the problem? The *winding order* of the vertices in that polygon *defines the direction of the normal*, i.e. if one pair of vertices is swapped in place, the normal will point in the opposite direction. So in fact this can be problematic if the mesh itself contains inconsistencies in that regard, i.e. parts of it assume one ordering, while other parts assume different orderings. One famous example is the original Stanford Bunny model, where some parts of the surface will point inwards, while others point outwards. The reason for that is because the model was constructed using a scanner, and no care was taken to produce triangles with regular winding patterns. (obviously, clean versions of the bunny also exist)

The winding problem is even more prominent if polygons can have multiple vertices, because in that case you would be averaging partial normals of the semi-triangulation of that polygon. Consider the case where partial normals are pointing in opposite directions, resulting in normal vectors of length 0 when taking the mean!

In the same sense, disconnected polygon soups and point clouds present challenges for accurate reconstruction due to the ill-defined winding number.

One potential strategy that is often used to solve this problem is to shoot random rays from outward to the center of each semi-triangulation (i.e. *ray-stabbing*). But one cannot assume that the triangulation is valid if polygons can contain multiple vertices, so rays may miss that particular sub-triangle. If a ray hits, then normal opposite to the ray direction, i.e. with *dot(ray, n) < .5* satisfied, can be used as the normal for the entire polygon. Obviously this is rather expensive and scales with the number of vertices per polygon.

Thankfully, there's great new work that describes an alternative method that is not only **faster** (for large and complex meshes) but also **generalizes** the ** 'winding order'** concept for constructions

**beyond polygon meshes**, such as point clouds and polygon soups, iso-surfaces, and point-set surfaces, where connectivity may not even be defined!

As outlined in the paper, the method constructs a **hierarchical splitting tree** representation that is refined progressively, taking the parent 'dipole' orientation into account at every split operation. A polygon normal would then simply be an integration (mean) over all di-poles (i.e. point+normal pairs) of the polygon.

For people who are dealing with unclean mesh/pcl data from Lidar scanners or other sources, this could def. be a game-changer.

**Why do normals exist?,** (and Geometry) to describe the orientation of a surface of a geometric object at a point on that surface. Normals play an important role in shading where they are used to compute the brightness of objects (see further lessons on Lights and Shading). In fact, from a practical and technical point of view, each triangle has its own set of 3 vertex normals. Which means that the total of vertex normals for triangle mesh is actually equal to the number of triangles multiplied by 3.

For those like me who came across this question, your answer might be this :

// Compute Vertex Normals std::vector<sf::Glsl::Vec3> verticesNormal; verticesNormal.resize(verticesCount); for (i = 0; i < indices.size(); i += 3) { // Get the face normal auto vector1 = verticesPos[indices[(size_t)i + 1]] - verticesPos[indices[i]]; auto vector2 = verticesPos[indices[(size_t)i + 2]] - verticesPos[indices[i]]; auto faceNormal = sf::VectorCross(vector1, vector2); sf::Normalize(faceNormal); // Add the face normal to the 3 vertices normal touching this face verticesNormal[indices[i]] += faceNormal; verticesNormal[indices[(size_t)i + 1]] += faceNormal; verticesNormal[indices[(size_t)i + 2]] += faceNormal; } // Normalize vertices normal for (i = 0; i < verticesNormal.size(); i++) sf::Normalize(verticesNormal[i]);

**Geometry (Points, Vectors and Normals),** A surface normal for a triangle can be calculated by taking the vector cross product of two edges of that triangle. The order of the vertices used in the calculation will affect the direction of the normal (in or out of the face w.r.t. winding). Calculating a Surface Normal. Algorithm. A surface normal for a triangle can be calculated by taking the vector cross product of two edges of that triangle. The order of the Pseudo-code. Newell's Method. Perl version for a triangle:

**Math for Game Developers - Triangle Mesh Normals,** Wherein we apply normal vectors to our triangle mesh so that it can be rendered with light Duration: 12:03
Posted: Dec 5, 2013 After lighting with normals computed as above, you will notice that triangle edges are apparent. If this in not desirable, you can compute smooth normals instead, by taking into account all the faces that share a same vertex.

**Calculating normals of a triangle mesh using numpy,** A common way of representing 3D meshes are by storing two arrays, one for vertices, and one array with triplets of indices into the first, for triangles. E.g.,. $\begingroup$ In most cases, if you calculate the vertex positions analytically, you can also calculate the normals analytically. For a parametric surface, the normals are the cross product of the two gradient vectors. Calculating the average of triangle normals is just an approximation, and often results in visually much poorer quality.

**How to calculate normals for a trianglemesh?,** Once you have all the face normals, you can calculate vertex If the winding order for the triangle is v1, v2, v3 - the crossproduct should be The normal vector to the triangle with these three points as its vertices is then given by the cross product n = (P2 − P1) × (P3 − P1). In matrix form, we then see that n = det ( [ i j k x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 x3 − x1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1]) = ( (y2 − y1) (z3 − z1) − (y3 − y1) (z2 − z1) (z2 − z1) (x3 − x1) − (x2 − x1) (z3 − z1) (x2 − x1)

##### Comments

- Vertices cannot have normals (unless they are an average of face normals for the faces around them). I've never used openGL so I don't know if there's a way to get them simply. I would imagine so, but if you wanted to do it yourself you could always calculate the edge vectors from the vertices and calculate the normals by taking the cross product of two edges (then normalizing to magnitude 1).
- I just edited it. I made some changes to the code but it doesn't compile.
`glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES,60000,GL_UNSIGNED_INT,indices);`

is going to run off the end of your 59403-element`indices`

array.- Using 10000 vertices for a grass ground seems rather large unless it is a very large area with a lot of interesting terrain features. You might consider a coarse mesh with texture mapping and normal mapping. Just an idea.
- Just had to login to +1 and say how brilliantly written your answer was.
- Very correct. :-) Instead of adding my own answer I'll just add a comment about this answer in which I have given a detailed description on calculating the normals.
- Is there a more efficient way of doing this? It works OK for simple models, but once I have a large number of vertices it takes a long time to calculate all the per-vertex normals.
- Then there's all the edge cases, for example triangles with zero area or thin triangles that skews the weight of the normal - weighting the normals by triangle area (summing the cross product un-normalized and only normalizing at the end) is possible but doesn't always give perfect results.