## I'm confused on why this Linked List implementation works

I've just recently gotten into linked lists and I'm adding my own "add to end" function.

```void insert_at_end(Node** head, Node* node)
{
Node* temp;

if (temp == NULL) // linked list is empty
{
}
else
{
while (temp->pNext != NULL)
{
temp = temp->pNext;
}
temp->pNext = node;
}
}
```

Originally I was doing `temp != NULL` instead of `temp->pNext != NULL` because I thought that way it would take me to the very LAST node, since it stops looping when temp still has data before it reaches NULL. Wouldn't `temp->pNext != NULL` stop at the 2nd to last node? Since it stops looping when it realizes that the last nodes next pointer is NULL, it does not travel to that node?

Thanks guys, If I need to clear anything up from that word vomit let me know.

Wouldn't `temp->pNext != NULL` stop at the 2nd to last node?

No. Here is the pictorial representation for ease of understanding.

With `temp != NULL`, `temp` will be pointing to `NULL`:

``` +---+    +---+    +---+
| 1 |--->| 2 |--->| 3 |---> NULL
+---+    +---+    +---+      ^
|
temp
```

As you see `temp` is iterating until it becomes `NULL`, at which point you cannot attach anything to the final node because you're past it.

With `temp->pNext != NULL`, `temp` will be pointing to last node.

``` +---+    +---+    +---+
| 1 |--->| 2 |--->| 3 |---> NULL
+---+    +---+    +---+
^
|
temp
```

Here `temp` will iterate till its next node is `NULL`. That means you're pointing to the final node and you can use that pointer to adjust that node to point to a new one with `temp->pNext = node`:

``` +---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
| 1 |--->| 2 |--->| 3 |--->| 4 |---> NULL
+---+    +---+    +---+    +---+
^
|
temp
```

As an aside, you may also want to add the extra safety of ensuring the node you're given points to `NULL`, on the off chance the caller may forget to do that. That's as simple as adding this line to the start of the function:

```node->pNext = NULL;
```

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have a reference for simple linked list concept

let us take an example

consider

```struct node
{
int data;// data which you want to feed.
struct node *next;// gona hold the address of the next data, so that link can be established
}*root,*p; // root is the starting reference to your linked list
```

case 1: you dont insert any element and your linked list is empty. Now when you insert a new data 10.it will check for any data in the global pointer reference to your linked list, if, the pointer seems to be NULL, then it means your liked list is empty.The memory stack will be created like this.

10

1000

10 is the data, 1000 is its address.

now when we see root->data is not null 1000->data is 10

we go for root->next which is null, which we come to know that this is the last node. 1000->next is NULL

and we insert the new node address to the root->next so that a link is created to the newly inserted node.

stack will be created like this

10 20

1000 1004

case3: now you want to add another data say 30 to the end of list again. just follow the same as case 2.

check for the node which is currently null, i.e root->next == NULL, for this you use a loop to find the node which is currently in last, like this.

``` struct node *temp; // creating a temp node which will be the new node we will insert
temp = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));// allocating the size for the temp node, same as the size of previous nodes.
p = root;// i am giving my starting address to pointer p, i traverse the node with pointer p only, since i dont want to loose my root starting address.
while(p->next != NULL)// checking for the last node
p = p->next;// if last node not found, just move to next node, and see whether it is last node or not
p->next = temp;// if last node is found, put the address of newly created temp node to the node previously found last in the linked list.
temp->data = element;// feeding data to the temp node.
temp->next = NULL;// keeping temp node as last, it is necessary to say temp wont has any more node connected.
```

NOTE dont think this is just a temp node, and will disappear once we come out of function, it is playing with pointer, so it wont destroyed until, the owner wont destroy it.

flow will be

newly created temp address is 1008

1000->next is 1004

1004->next is NULL

so, 1004->next will hold 1008 now

then,1008->data will be 30

then, 1008->next will be NULL

stack will be created like this

10 20 30

1000 1004 1008

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• No problems, kiran In reality, I just couldn't stomach `/ \ ` as an up-arrow when a perfectly adequate `^` was available :-) All the other changes were just incremental improvements.
• That would have been funnier if the `NULL` was the empty field beyond the buffer at the last station. By the time the train ends up in that field, there's no way to build tracks there :-)