How does one display "Hello, world!" without using the benefits of a high-level assembler?
I'm attempting to display "Hello, world!" with FASM on a 64-bit Windows 7 machine without using the crutches that modern assemblers seem to provide in abundance.
This rather simple task proved to be surprisingly frustrating since every example and tutorial I could find insists on resorting to macros, including prewritten code, or importing libraries from high-level languages. I thought that the kind of people who want to learn assembly typically do so to develop a direct and intimate understanding of how computers work. All these abstractions and obfuscations seem to detract from that purpose.
Rant aside, I'm looking for code that can display "Hello, world!" on a console without reusing, including, and importing anything except to directly access the Windows API. Although I'm aware that many assemblers come packaged with files that provide access to the Windows API, I'd rather not rely on them.
Also, if you have any suggestions as to what assemblers or tutorials I can use to better facilitate my approach to learning, I'd greatly appreciate it.
The big problem with "pure" windows programming is that Windows require that the program contains import section, about what functions from the system DLLs have to be provided to the program - so called import table.
This table is not a part of the program and has nothing to do with assembly programming itself. Besides, the import table has complex structure, not very convenient to be manually build. That is why FASM provides some standard way for the user to build these import tables.
The proper approach to you, if you goal is to learn assembly, is to read the FASM manuals, where these macros are described, then to read the example code provided in any FASM distribution and then to start using them and concentrate to the assembly programming.
The moderate use of macros does not make your program less assembly written!
The FASM message board is good place to ask questions and to get help, but you have to make your homework after all.
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Every running process under windows gets either kernel32 or kernalbase loaded into its address space, using this fact and the PEB internals, you can easily access any windows function (provided you have the right access privileges).
This blog entry details how to go about doing this to display a message with
In all honesty, unless you have some extreme reason for doing this, you are going to just end up wasting time, rather use the tools provided (in this case, a linker, so you can access any windows API without going through 10000 hurdles and loops).
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I managed to link to one library only (
kernel32.dll) and make reference to 3 functions:
GetStdHandle WriteConsole ExitProcess
The code below is the result of my exhaustive Google search, and my own reference to MS documentation.
format PE console entry start include 'include\win32a.inc' section '.data' data readable writable msg db 'Hello World!',13,10,0 len = $-msg dummy dd ? section '.code' readable writable executable start: push STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE call [GetStdHandle] ;STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE (DWORD)-11 push 0 ;LPVOID lpReserved push dummy ;LPDWORD lpNumberOfCharsWritten push len ;DWORD nNumberOfCharsToWrite push msg ;VOID *lpBuffer; push eax ;HANDLE hConsoleOutput call [WriteConsole] push 0 call [ExitProcess] section '.idata' data import readable writable library kernel32,'KERNEL32.DLL' include 'include\api\kernel32.inc'
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- Asking google for help: http://board.flatassembler.net/topic.php?t=14034
- Trying to do it yourself
; Example of 64-bit PE program format PE64 GUI entry start section '.text' code readable executable start: sub rsp,8*5 ; reserve stack for API use and make stack dqword aligned mov r9d,0 lea r8,[_caption] lea rdx,[_message] mov rcx,0 call [MessageBoxA] mov ecx,eax call [ExitProcess] section '.data' data readable writeable _caption db 'Win64 assembly program',0 _message db 'Hello World!',0 section '.idata' import data readable writeable dd 0,0,0,RVA kernel_name,RVA kernel_table dd 0,0,0,RVA user_name,RVA user_table dd 0,0,0,0,0 kernel_table: ExitProcess dq RVA _ExitProcess dq 0 user_table: MessageBoxA dq RVA _MessageBoxA dq 0 kernel_name db 'KERNEL32.DLL',0 user_name db 'USER32.DLL',0 _ExitProcess dw 0 db 'ExitProcess',0 _MessageBoxA dw 0 db 'MessageBoxA',0
.model tiny .code org 100h main proc mov ah,9 ; Display String Service mov dx,offset hello_message ; Offset of message (Segment DS is the right segment in .COM files) int 21h ; call DOS int 21h service to display message at ptr ds:dx retn ; returns to address 0000 off the stack ; which points to bytes which make int 20h (exit program) hello_message db 'Hello, world!$' main endp end main
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- The system call IDs in Windows differ between different versions of Windows. I don't see much point in that, but that's how things are. This is why you want to import a few system DLLs, which have those system call IDs inside, and use the wrapper functions from those DLLs to get the job done. I don't think reverse engineering those DLLs and the OS kernel is going to save you time. Just use the DLLs.
- @JohnMcClane Why don't you use console functions like
WriteConsole? msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/… This is a C example: stackoverflow.com/q/9794764/2316442
- I had already seen that. And while I appreciate your response, I was looking to display "Hello, world!" to the console, which I heard is much more complex than displaying it in a window.
- Thank you, but that code is for DOS. There's a Windows example on the same page, but it says to use
include win32.incwhich is what I'm trying to avoid.
- The x86-64 part of this answer looks good as far as showing how to manually import WinAPI function. The DOS part is totally irrelevant for Windows. The Windows equivalent would be directly using x86-64
syscallfor some version of Windows (undocumented and unsupported, and call numbers can change between Windows version, unlike on Linux where the direct system-call ABI is stable.).