## Java: What does ~ mean

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In this Java source code I have this line:

if ((modifiers & ~KeyEvent.SHIFT_MASK) != 0) ....

What does the tilde `~`

mean?

The Tilde (`~`

) performs a bitwise complement of a numerical value in Java.

See: Bitwise complement (`~`

): inverts ones and zeroes in a number

**What does "?" mean in Java?,** In Java, != is an operator that means “not equal to.” It returns true if the two operands are equal to one another and false if they are not. The double colon (::) operator, also known as method reference operator in Java, is used to call a method by referring to it with the help of its class directly. They behave exactly as the lambda expressions.

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From Java's website http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/nutsandbolts/op3.html

The unary bitwise complement operator "~" inverts a bit pattern; it can be applied to any of the integral types, making every "0" a "1" and every "1" a "0". For example, a byte contains 8 bits; applying this operator to a value whose bit pattern is "00000000" would change its pattern to "11111111".

Now, as previously answered by Pascal MARTIN, at any given case the value equals to -(x)-1. E.g. ~2=-3, ~-6=5, etc.

Also, in java all **positive integers** are stored as their binary representations and **negative integers** are stored in 2's compliment value of a positive integer.

Now, let's see how it works in bit level in case of ~2=-3:

Initially, 2 is stored in its binary representation:

0000 0000 0000 0010

Now ~2 will result in the value (inverse the bits):

1111 1111 1111 1101

How in the world I know it is -3? Well, it is -3 because it is derived from 2's compliment representation of 3.

As we know 2's(x)= 1's(x) + 1 (https://delightlylinux.wordpress.com/2014/10/13/binary-lesson-12-ones-complement-and-twos-complement/)
**Our aim is it to find x**:
1's(x)= 2's(x) - 1 (based on previous expression)

As our answer is in is in 2's compliment,
1's(x)= `1111 1111 1111 1101 - 0000 0000 0000 0001`

1's (x)= `1111 1111 1111 1100`

(How to subtract -http://sandbox.mc.edu/~bennet/cs110/pm/sub.html)
Therefore x= 1's compliment of value (as the answer we got represents 1's compliment of x).
x = `0000 0000 0000 0011`

So, we have found that x is 3 and hence our previous result of ~ operator `1111 1111 1111 1101`

is -3 written as 2's compliment of 3.

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From the official docs http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/java/nutsandbolts/op3.html:

The unary bitwise complement operator "~" inverts a bit pattern; it can be applied to any of the integral types, making every "0" a "1" and every "1" a "0". For example, a byte contains 8 bits; applying this operator to a value whose bit pattern is "00000000" would change its pattern to "11111111".

**Operators in Java,** and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. What does the ++ or -- signs after a variable mean? Answer. These operators date back to the days of C programming. These operators increment or decrement a variable by one. They're quite handy for using in expressions, because they will increment or decrement the variable after the expression has been tested.

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