How to make a local variable (inside a function) global

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Here are two methods to achieve the same thing:

Using parameters and return (recommended)

def other_function(parameter):
    return parameter + 5

def main_function():
    x = 10
    print x    
    x = other_function(x)
    print x

When you run main_function, you'll get the following output

>>> 10
>>> 15

Using globals (never do this)

x = 0   # The initial value of x, with global scope

def other_function():
    global x
    x = x + 5

def main_function():
    print x    # Just printing - no need to declare global yet
    global x   # So we can change the global x
    x = 10
    print x
    other_function()
    print x

Now you will get:

>>> 0    # Initial global value
>>> 10   # Now we've set it to 10 in `main_function()`
>>> 15   # Now we've added 5 in `other_function()`

Global and Local Variables in Python, because we have used global keyword in x to create global variable inside the change() function (local scope). 3.2. Local variables are bounded within function scope. If you create a variable with the same name inside a function, this variable will be local, and can only be used inside the function. The global variable with the same name will remain as it was, global and with the original value.


Simply declare your variable outside any function:

globalValue = 1

def f(x):
    print(globalValue + x)

If you need to assign to the global from within the function, use the global statement:

def f(x):
    global globalValue
    print(globalValue + x)
    globalValue += 1

Global keyword in Python, Here are two methods to achieve the same thing: Using parameters and return ( recommended) def other_function(parameter): return� "The variables that are defined outside of function and using 'global' keyword to create variable inside of the function are known as Global variable." inside of the function are Local variable.


If you need access to the internal states of a function, you're possibly better off using a class. You can make a class instance behave like a function by making it a callable, which is done by defining __call__:

class StatefulFunction( object ):
    def __init__( self ):
        self.public_value = 'foo'

    def __call__( self ):
        return self.public_value


>> f = StatefulFunction()
>> f()
`foo`
>> f.public_value = 'bar'
>> f()
`bar`

How to make a local variable (inside a function) global, x = 1 # make a global module variable def f(): print x # try to print the global for j in in a function is local to that function, unless it is specifically declared global. of the function, and that it affects all uses of the variable inside the function. In contrast, global variables are variables that are defined outside of functions. These variables have global scope, so they can be used by any function without passing them to the function as parameters. Local Variable: Since local variables are defined inside the function so variables with the same name can be used in different functions


Using globals will also make your program a mess - I suggest you try very hard to avoid them. That said, "global" is a keyword in python, so you can designate a particular variable as a global, like so:

def foo():
    global bar
    bar = 32

I should mention that it is extremely rare for the 'global' keyword to be used, so I seriously suggest rethinking your design.

How do you set a global variable in a function?, So when you define variables inside a function definition, they are local to this function by default. That is, anything you will do to such a variable in the body of� Just reference the variable inside the function; no magic, just use it's name. If it's been created globally, then you'll be updating the global variable. You can override this behaviour by declaring it locally using var, but if you don't use var, then a variable name used in a function will be global if that variable has been declared globally.


You could use module scope. Say you have a module called utils:

f_value = 'foo'

def f():
    return f_value

f_value is a module attribute that can be modified by any other module that imports it. As modules are singletons, any change to utils from one module will be accessible to all other modules that have it imported:

>> import utils
>> utils.f()
'foo'
>> utils.f_value = 'bar'
>> utils.f()
'bar'

Note that you can import the function by name:

>> import utils
>> from utils import f
>> utils.f_value = 'bar'
>> f()
'bar'

But not the attribute:

>> from utils import f, f_value
>> f_value = 'bar'
>> f()
'foo'

This is because you're labeling the object referenced by the module attribute as f_value in the local scope, but then rebinding it to the string bar, while the function f is still referring to the module attribute.

Python Tutorial: Global vs. Local Variables and Namespaces, Local variables have Function scope: They can only be accessed from within the function. A variable declared outside a function, becomes GLOBAL. A global� You can't define a global variable inside a function. You can implicitly create a global variable, or create a window property inside a function, but you can't define a global variable inside a function. – Guffa Nov 17 '13 at 13:22 1


JavaScript Scope, Normally, we declare a variable inside the function to create a local variable. def foo(): y = "local" print(y) foo� Automatically Global. If you assign a value to a variable that has not been declared, it will automatically become a GLOBAL variable. This code example will declare a global variable carName, even if the value is assigned inside a function.


Python Global, Local and Nonlocal variables (With Examples), In PHP global variables must be declared global inside a function if they are If you create a local variable in a function and then within that function assign it to� By declaring $a and $b global within the function, all references to either variable will refer to the global version. There is no limit to the number of global variables that can be manipulated by a function. A second way to access variables from the global scope is to use the special PHP-defined $GLOBALS array.


Variable scope - Manual, The variables which are declared inside the function, compound statement (or variables outside the function in which they are defined, you will get an error.