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A computer has a cache, main memory and a hard disk. If a referenced word is in the cache, it takes 15 ns to access it. If it is in main memory but not in the cache, it takes 85 ns to load (the block containing) it into the cache (this includes the time to originally check the cache), and then the reference lookup is started again. If the word is not in main memory, it takes 10 ms to load (the block containing) it from the disk into main memory, and then the reference lookup is started again. The cache hit ratio is 0.4. In the case of a cache miss, the probability that the word is in the main memory is 0.7. Compute the average load time.
My Answer Given: Cache access time = 15 ns Cache hit rate = 0.4 Cache miss rate = 1 – 0.4 = 0.6 RAM access time = 85 ns RAM hit rate = 0.7 RAM miss rate = 1 – 0.7 = 0.3 Disk access time = 10ms = 10000000 ns > Average access time = (cache access time x cache hit rate) + (cache > miss rate) x (RAM access time + RAM hit rate) + (cache miss rate x ram > miss rate x disk access time) > = (15*0.4) + (0.6)(85*0.7) + (0.6)(0.3)(10000000) > = 1 800 041,7 ns
I hope you are enjoying the computer systems class at Birkbeck... ;P
I think you missed something though:
(1) You are assuming the 10ms include the initial checking of the cache (he specified it for the 85ns but not for the 10ms so would add that to be on the safe side)
(2) It says the reference lookup is started again after loading into cache and main memory respectively... So from the question I understand that words can only be accessed from the cache (otherwise why bother with the 85ns?). Hence, I think you need to add the time it takes to load it into the cache from main memory when retrieved from the disk initially. Also, although I am not entirely sure on this one as it is a bit ambiguous, I think you need to add another 15ns for the word to be accessed in the cache after its loaded from main memory...
Interested to hear some thoughts
Interpret Site Speed - Analytics Help, Avg Page Load Time : The average amount of time (in seconds) it takes that page to This tab provides timing buckets so you can determine whether the bulk of It is defined as the average of all loads that occur on a power station for a given period of time. Mathematically Average load formula can be linked by the following relation: Average load (AL) = No of units generated/time Interval (in hours) List of 100 Basic Electrical Engineering formulas
Kindly share the answers of first three questions in assignment here if you have done em.. :P
For this question answer is : Cache access time = 15ns Memory access time = 85ns +15ns = 100ns Disk access time = 10x106 + 100ns = 10000100ns Average load time = 0.4 x 15ns + 0.6[0.7 x 100ns + 0.3(10000100ns)] Average load time = 6 +0.6(70 + 3000030) = 6 + 1800060 Average load time = 1800066ns = 1.8ms
Average Page Load Times for 2020 - Are you faster?, As you know, there are many metrics that determine a website's page speed, and we can't How fast is the average page load time in 2020? They found that the average web page takes 87% longer to load on mobile vs. desktop. In addition, the average desktop Time to First Byte (TTFB) speed is 1.28 seconds on desktop and 2.5 seconds on mobile. Finally, they found that the average time it takes to fully load a webpage is 10 seconds on desktop and 27 seconds on mobile.
If it is in main memory but not in the cache, it takes 85 ns to load (the block containing) it into the cache (this includes the time to originally check the cache).
You dont't need to add 85 (Memory) and 15 (Cache)
For this question answer is :
Cache access time = 15ns Memory access time = 85ns Disk access time = 10x106 + 85ns = 1000085ns Average load time = 0.4 x 15ns + 0.6[0.7 x 85ns + 0.3(1000085ns)] Average load time = 6 +0.6(59.5 + 3000025.5) = 6 + 1800051 Average load time = 1800057ns = 1.8ms
What exactly is Average Page load time? How to calculate page , The average load time for a website is around 2.4 seconds. And there are many components that influence the load time of a page from your DNS, cache, round load average over the last 1 minute is 1.98; load average over the last 5 minutes is 2.15; load average over the last 15 minutes is 2.21; High load averages imply that a system is overloaded; many processes are waiting for CPU time. We will uncover this in the next section in relation to number of CPU cores.
[PDF] Calculating the Average Load, The average load (P m) is the load under which the service life of the LM Guide is equivalent to that under varying loads applied to the LM blocks. Pm = •∑ (Pn. Right-click in the cell where we want to insert AVERAGE time formula; Select Format Cells and in Number tab choose Time format ; Click OK and Time format will be set. Figure 1. Format cells to get average time. Figure 2. Set Time format to calculate average time. To get the average time we should follow the steps: In the cell E2 insert function =AVERAGE(B3:B6)
Load (computing), The load average represents the average system load over a period of time. It conventionally appears in the form of three numbers which represent the system How to compute page load time using JMeter. Ask Question Asked 3 years, 7 months ago. Active 3 years, 7 months ago. Viewed 3k times 5. Could any one please tell me
Linux Load Averages: Solving the Mystery, uptime 16:48:24 up 4:11, 1 user, load average: 25.25, 23.40, 23.46 top load average of 10 would mean that (for a single CPU system) at any time This file contains the magic bits required to compute the global loadavg Add together the time weights to get the total weight. In this case, the total weight is 13 + 23 + 4 = 40 hours. Divide the value in Step 2 by the total weights in Step 3, to obtain 1716 / 40 = 42.9 dB.
- I'll appreciate any comment.
- This question is purely a math problem. It's not plausible that any real system would have exactly 10 ms hard page faults, with enough precision that you could usefully compute an average that takes into account cache hit/miss as well. (At least not with such a high page miss rate dominating the average!). i.e. The CPU cache is making a negligible difference to the average access time with such a high miss rate. (I'm assuming a coherent CPU cache, so all accesses that hit in cache could have hit in RAM without causing a page miss. But the CPU cache hit rate is very low.)
- Anyway yeah, looks right. Pretty terrible CPU cache, though. Such a low hit rate, and so such a slow hit time. Compare a modern 4GHz Skylake desktop where L1d has 4 to 5 cycle latency, so ~1 ns hit time, but still about ~85 ns for main memory is still about right. (DRAM access times in ns have stayed near constant even as bandwidth and CPU clock speeds have increased.)
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