How to "flatten" a multi-dimensional array to simple one in PHP?

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It's probably beginner question but I'm going through documentation for longer time already and I can't find any solution. I thought I could use implode for each dimension and then put those strings back together with str_split to make new simple array. However I never know if the join pattern isn't also in values and so after doing str_split my original values could break.

Is there something like combine($array1, $array2) for arrays inside of multi-dimensional array?

Use array_walk_recursive


$aNonFlat = array(

$objTmp = (object) array('aFlat' => array());

array_walk_recursive($aNonFlat, create_function('&$v, $k, &$t', '$t->aFlat[] = $v;'), $objTmp);


array(11) {


Tested with PHP 5.5.9-1ubuntu4.24 (cli) (built: Mar 16 2018 12:32:06)

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$array  = your array

$result = call_user_func_array('array_merge', $array);

echo "<pre>";


Here is another solution (works with multi-dimensional array) :

function array_flatten($array) {

   $return = array();
   foreach ($array as $key => $value) {
       if (is_array($value)){ $return = array_merge($return, array_flatten($value));}
       else {$return[$key] = $value;}
   return $return;


$array  = Your array

$result = array_flatten($array);

echo "<pre>";

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This is a one line, SUPER easy to use:

$result = array();
array_walk_recursive($original_array,function($v) use (&$result){ $result[] = $v; });

It is very easy to understand, inside the anonymous function/closure. $v is the value of your $original_array.

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// $array = your multidimensional array

$flat_array = array();

foreach(new RecursiveIteratorIterator(new RecursiveArrayIterator($array)) as $k=>$v){

$flat_array[$k] = $v;


Also documented:

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If you specifically have an array of arrays that doesn't go further than one level deep (a use case I find common) you can get away with array_merge and the splat operator.


$notFlat = [[1,2],[3,4]];
$flat = array_merge(...$notFlat);


array(4) {

The splat operator effectively changes the array of arrays to a list of arrays as arguments for array_merge.

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  • Please check this link for solution :…
  • Another good reference question with perhaps better answers: How to Flatten a Multidimensional Array?
  • Does anyone know why this doesn't work unless I use the (depreciated) call-time pass by reference. i.e. array_walk_recursive($array, create_function('&$v, $k, &$t', '$t[] = $v;'), &$flattened); The function definition is correctly defined as pass by reference. but doesn't work unless I pass by reference during call-time.
  • @jskilski Objects ($objTmp in this example) are passed by reference automatically; arrays are not. Try using an anonymous function ( instead of create_function.
  • this doesnt work in php 5.3.3 due to a bug in array_walk_recursive -
  • @crazyphoton The kink says also This bug has been fixed in SVN.
  • Why does this answer mention using array_values()? I can't see any use of that function involved in the answer at all.
  • This answer is much faster than the accepted answer.
  • Since php5.3 you can now use the splat operator: $result = array_merge(...$array);…
  • Your first answer doesn't work with a multi-dimensional array.
  • This is the only one that worked for me in a two level array.