How do big companies tackle with the package dependencies conflict problem?

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Just as shown in the picture, one app (Java) referenced two third-party package jars (packageA and packageB), and they referenced packageC-0.1 and packageC-0.2 respectively. It would work well if packageC-0.2 was compatible with packageC-0.1. However sometimes packageA used something that could not be supported in packageC-0.2 and Maven can only use the latest version of a jar. This issue is also known as "Jar Hell".

It would be difficult in practice to rewrite package A or force its developers to update packageC to 0.2.

How do you tackle with these problems? This often happens in large-scale companies.

I have to declare that this problem is mostly occurred in BIG companies due to the fact that big company has a lot of departments and it would be very expensive to let the whole company update one dependency each time certain developers use new features of new version of some dependency jars. And this is not big deal in small companies.

Any response will be highly appreciated.

Let me throw away a brick in order to get a gem first.

Alibaba is one of the largest E-Commerces in the world. And we tackle with these problems by creating an isolation container named Pandora. Its principle is simple: packaging those middle-wares together and load them with different ClassLoaders so that they can work well together even they referenced same packages with different versions. But this need a runtime environment provided by Pandora which is running as a tomcat process. I have to admit that this is a heavy plan. Pandora is developed based on a fact that JVM identifies one class by class-loader plus classname.

If you know someone maybe know the answers, share the link with him/her.

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This is a common problem in the java world.

Your best options are to regularly maintain and update dependencies of both packageA and packageB.

If you have control over those applications - make time to do it. If you don't have control, demand that the vendor or author make regular updates.

If both packageA and packageB are used internally, you can use the following practise: have all internal projects in your company refer to a parent in the maven pom.xml that defines "up to date" versions of commonly used third party libraries.

For example:

    <framework.jersey>2.27</framework.jersey>
    <framework.spring>4.3.18.RELEASE</framework.spring>
    <framework.spring.security>4.2.7.RELEASE</framework.spring.security>

Therefore, if your project "A" uses spring, if they use the latest version of your company's "parent" pom, they should both use 4.3.18.RELEASE.

When a new version of spring is released and desirable, you update your company's parent pom, and force all other projects to use that latest version.

This will solve many of these dependency mismatch issues.

Don't worry, it's common in the java world, you're not alone. Just google "jar hell" and you can understand the issue in the broader context.

By the way mvn dependency:tree is your friend for isolating these dependency problems.

Creating a Sustainable Brand: A Guide to Growing the , A Guide to Growing the Sustainability Top Line Henk Campher. sustainability analysis is very simply a question of whether the product helps dependency, conflict, etc. while the other addresses many of those negative Similarly, shared value, where companies focus on growth opportunities by tackling social problems  How to identify and resolve a dependency conflict Occasionally when running a deployment on the Cloud or building a project locally, the process will fail, with a message like: ERROR: Service 'web' failed to build: The command '/bin/sh -c pip-reqs compile && pip-reqs resolve && pip install --no-index --no-deps --requirement requirements.urls

I agree with the answer of @JF Meier ,In Maven multi-module project, the dependency management node is usually defined in the parent POM file when doing unified version management. The content of dependencies node declared by the node class is about the resource version of unified definition. The resources in the directly defined dependencies node need not be introduced into the version phase. The contents of the customs are as follows:

in the parent pom

<dependencyManagement> 
    <dependencies > 
      <dependency > 
        <groupId>com.devzuz.mvnbook.proficio</groupId> 
        <artifactId>proficio-model</artifactId> 
        <version>${project.version}</version> 
      </dependency > 
    </dependencies > 
  </dependencyManagement>

in your module ,you do not need to set the version

<dependencies > 
    <dependency > 
      <groupId>com.devzuz.mvnbook.proficio</groupId> 
       <artifactId>proficio-model</artifactId> 
    </dependency > 
  </dependencies > 

This will avoid the problem of inconsistency .

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This question can't be answered in general. In the past we usually just didn't use dependencies of different versions. If the version was changed, team-/company-wide refactoring was necessary. I doubt it is possible with most build tools.

But to answer your question.. Simple answer: Don't use two versions of one dependency within one compilation unit (usually a module)

But if you really have to do this, you could write a wrapper module that references to the legacy version of the library.

But my personal opinion is that within one module there should not be the need for these constructs because "one module" should be relatively small to be manageable. Otherwise it might be a strong indicator that the project could use some modularization refactoring. However, I know very well that some projects of "large-scale companies" can be a huge mess where no 'good' option is available. I guess you are talking about a situation where packageA is owned by a different team than packageB... and this is generally a very bad design decision due to the lack of separation and inherent dependency problems.

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First of all, try to avoid the problem. As mentioned in @Henry's comment, don't use 3rd party libraries for trivial tasks.

However, we all use libraries. And sometimes we end up with the problem you describe, where we need two different versions of the same library. If library 'C' has removed and added some APIs between the two versions, and the removed APIs are needed by 'A', while 'B' needs the new ones, you have an issue.

In my company, we run our Java code inside an OSGi container. Using OSGi, you can modularize your code in "bundles", which are jar files with some special directives in their manifest file. Each bundle jar has its own classloader, so two bundles can use different versions of the same library. In your example, you could split your application code that uses 'packageA' into one bundle, and the code that uses 'packageB' in another. The two bundles can call each others APIs, and it will all work fine as long as your bundles do not use 'packageC' classes in the signature of the methods used by the other bundle (known as API leakage).

To get started with OSGi, you can e.g. take a look at OSGi enRoute.

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Dependency hell, It can also be difficult to locate all the dependencies, which can be This is a particular problem if an application uses a small part of a big during this long chain of dependencies, conflicts arise where two These long chains of dependencies can be solved by having a package manager that  Dependencies with a package manager are great. It’s a fantastic mechanism to re-use existing code and being able to update it easily. You should however be responsible about which and how many…

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Solving Dependency Conflicts in Maven, Maven dependency conflicts can be really hard to solve. Firstly, imagine you have started working on a large and interesting project that uses a lot of dependency to a newer version; but that does not solve the problem. JUnit 4 and 5 use different package names, so they can co-exist in the same project. Many of the annotations are the same ( @Test , etc) so make sure you include them from the org.junit.jupiter.api package.

Comments
  • The best way to deal with this problem is to try to avoid it. For example don't use an external library for a task that can be programmed with 20 lines of code. Otherwise choose external libraries wisely and consider compatibility.
  • follow the advice of Henry furthermore check your build with dependencyConvergence rule of the maven enforcer plugin to prevent such situations or better being warned about such....
  • No need to close, this is a quite specific and known problem in the java world.
  • I have to declare that this problem is mostly occurred in BIG companies due to the fact that big company has a lot of departments and it would be very expensive to let the whole company update one dependency each time certain developers use new features of new version of some dependency jars.
  • We are using micro-services and still has this problem due to that every micro-service serves other applications by providing a client package(jar). For example, A-service which using hessian-1 as its serialization protocol provides a client named A-client, and B-service referenced A-client and B-service uses hessian-2 as its serialization protocol. The problem occurred. HOWEVER Spring Cloud can tackle with this problem due to that its services communicate with each other via http protocol which is commonly supported in all web applications.
  • and please see H.King's answer for <dependencyManagement> syntax
  • You plan is suitable for some circumstances and still can not avoid the problem if the company is too large to force every BU and every department use the default version of one jar. And if one department says "I must have to use version2", and all the BUs and departments need to updated to version2, and that is not reasonable.
  • Thanks for reminding me the "Jar Hell" conception, it is useful for the problem to spread.
  • You plan is suitable for some circumstances and still can not avoid the problem if the company is too large to force every BU and every department use the default version of one jar. And if one department says "I must have to use version2", and all the BUs and departments need to updated to version2, and that is not reasonable.