Why doesn't `new Array(new Number(3))` produce an array of length 3?

When I write new Array(new Number(3)) in the console, it produces an array of length 1 with that item being a Number object with valueOf=3. Why does the array constructor treat new Number(3) different to the primitive version of 3?

  1. Can someone link me to a standards doc where this Array behaviour is specified?
  2. Is this something that I need to watch out for in general, or is it specific to the Array constructor?


Because in new Array(new Number(3)), the parameter new Number(3) returns an object and not the number.

Where as new Array(Number(3)) will work as Number(3) returns 3, the number.

Thanks to @Andreas' comment, here's the specification: ECMAScript Array (len)

Step 7: "If Type(len) is not Number, then

  1. Let defineStatus be CreateDataProperty(array, "0", len).
  2. Assert: defineStatus is true.
  3. Let intLen be 1.

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From the MDN

If the only argument passed to the Array constructor is an integer between 0 and 232-1 (inclusive), this returns a new JavaScript array with its length property set to that number

Instance of new Number(3) is not an integer(number).

Number.isInteger(3) // -> true

Number.isInteger(Number(3)) // -> true

Number.isInteger(new Number(3)) // -> false

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Array can take either n parameters representing its elements, or a number with the array length (syntax).

new Array(element0, element1[, ...[, elementN]])

elementN A JavaScript array is initialized with the given elements, except in the case where a single argument is passed to the Array constructor and that argument is a number (see the arrayLength parameter below). Note that this special case only applies to JavaScript arrays created with the Array constructor, not array literals created with the bracket syntax.

new Array(arrayLength)

arrayLength If the only argument passed to the Array constructor is an integer between 0 and 232-1 (inclusive), this returns a new JavaScript array with its length property set to that number (Note: this implies an array of arrayLength empty slots, not slots with actual undefined values). If the argument is any other number, a RangeError exception is thrown.

If you console log the following values, you will see that new Number(3); is not an integer.

typeof 3

typeof Number(3)

typeof new Number(3)

As new Number(3) is an object it thinks it's elementN scenario where you are passing the first element of the array.

If you use new Array(Number(3)); however, this would work because Number(3) is of type number.

You can also refer to the definition of new Number() (syntax):


The numeric value of the object being created.

It is clear that it is returning an object from this explanation. When you are doing Number(x), what happens is a type casting:

In a non-constructor context (i.e., without the new operator), Number can be used to perform a type conversion.

This explains why Number(3) would work as it would be casting 3 (or "3") as a number.

console.log(typeof 3);  // number
console.log(typeof Number(3));  // number
console.log(typeof Number("3"));  // number
console.log(typeof new Number(3)); // object

console.log(new Array(3)); // [,,]
console.log(new Array(Number(3))); // [,,]
console.log(new Array(Number("3"))); // [,,]
console.log(new Array(new Number(3))); // [{}]

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Because new Number() is a constructor that creates an object of type Number. If you initialise an array using it's constructor new Array() with an object it becomes a member of that array. If you initialise an array using it's constructor new Array() with a numeric value it will create an empty array of that size.

Just type into your console:

var n = new Number(3);

You get an object of type Number with a primitive value of 3, this is different from

var n = 3;

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  • ECMAScript Array (len) -> Step 7: "If Type(len) is not Number, then ..." with typeof new Number(3) === "object"
  • This was also useful to understand that new Number (or Boolean) isn't really useful, since it wraps the plain scalar into an object: stackoverflow.com/q/4719320/500207
  • Thanks! If you can edit in @Andreas' comment with the ECMAScript link, then I will accept this answer :)
  • It might be good to illustrate this by showing the results of calling Number.isInteger(): Namely, Number.isInteger(new Number(3)) === false but Number.isInteger(3) === true.
  • @HereticMonkey, thanks this will complete an answer.