Variable scopes in python classes

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declaring a variable in a class (outside of a function) : all class functions can access it (basically a public variable)

declaring a variable inside a function inside a class : only that function can access it (its in that functions scope)

declaring a variable with self.(variable name) inside a function inside a class : all class functions can access it (how is this different from global (variable name)?)

and since there is no private / protected, everything is public, so everything accessible from inside a class is accessible from outside the class.

Are there any other nuances I should know, or have I pretty much got it?

Variables and scope, Otherwise, all variables found outside of the innermost scope are read-only (an attempt to write to such a variable will simply create a new local variable in the  Elite Programming Professionals Ready to Teach Online. Anytime, Anywhere.

Declaring a variable at the top level of the class is like declaring a static or class variable. Qualifying it with self is declaring an instance variable. Class variables can be modified by referring to them by class name (e.g. Class.x = 5) and all instances will inherit these changes. Instance variables are private to an instance and can only be modified by that instance.

You can achieve some level of access control using underscores. See private variables in the Python tutorial. By convention, variables starting with one underscore, e.g. _foo are non-public parts of an API, and names starting with two underscores e.g. __foo will have it's name mangled to be _classname__foo.

9. Classes, Scope of Variables in Python. Learn what variable scopes are all about and get familiar with the 'LEGB' rule. You will also deal with scenarios  A variable created in the main body of the Python code is a global variable and belongs to the global scope. Global variables are available from within any scope, global and local. Example

Although answered, let me add some comments to your questions:

declaring a variable in a class (outside of a function) : all class functions can access it (basically a public variable): comment:this is like a static variable and can be called using the class name. These variables are available to all functions, any functions can modify it and print it.

declaring a variable inside a function inside a class : only that function can access it (its in that functions scope): comment: if the variable is declared without self then it is accessible within that function only, kinda local variable. However if it declared using self like self.var= 'somevalue',, then it is accessible via any object but not via the class name.

declaring a variable with self.(variable name) inside a function inside a class : all class functions can access it (how is this different from global (variable name)?): comment: see asnswer in the above part.

and since there is no private / protected, everything is public, so everything accessible from inside a class is accessible from outside the class.: comment: yes, but we can use single underscore to tell world this variable is private but technically that actually doesnt make it private.

(Tutorial) Scope of Variables in Python, my_var = 3. The variable is global because any Python function or class defined in this module or notebook, is able to access this variable. For example:. Class variables can be modified by referring to them by class name (e.g. Class.x = 5) and all instances will inherit these changes. Instance variables are private to an instance and can only be modified by that instance. You can achieve some level of access control using underscores. See private variables in the Python tutorial.

we can use the scope in this for as : case 1: In the Class

class test:
     def __init__(self, a):
          self.__elements = a
     def change_a(self): self.__elements = 5

case 2 : Outside class

t = test(5)

This will access by as object._classname__privatevaribalename

print(t._test__elements)

this will print the change value of a

Global and local scope of Python variables, In Python, we can define the variable outside the class, inside the class and even value from code scope · Different ways to access Instance Variable in Python  The inside of a class body is also a new local variable scope. Variables which are defined in the class body (but outside any class method) are called class attributes. They can be referenced by their bare names within the same scope, but they can also be accessed from outside this scope if we use the attribute access operator (.) on a class or an instance (an object which uses that class as its type).

class Test: a = None b = None

def __init__(self, a):
    print self.a
    self.a = a
    self._x = 123
    self.__y = 123
    b = 'meow'

this worked for me. Thanks to ThiefMaster

Python, Comprehension Variables Scope; Exception Variables Scope; Class and Instance Attributes Scope. Using Scope Related Built-In Functions. This lesson will explain what is variable scope in Python. Two types of variables, local and global, will be explained with the help of examples. You will understand how each of these are used.

Python Scope & the LEGB Rule: Resolving Names in Your Code , In other words, the function body is the scope of such a variable, i.e. the enclosing context where this name is associated with its values. All variables have the  The scope of a variable in python is that part of the code where it is visible. Actually, to refer to it, you don’t need to use any prefixes then. Let’s take an example, but before let’s revise python Syntax.

Python Tutorial: Global vs. Local Variables and Namespaces, In exercise https://www.codecademy.com/courses/learn-python-3/lessons/data-​types/exercises/self I am running into a dilemma related to the  Python | Using variable outside and inside the class and method. In Python, we can define the variable outside the class, inside the class and even inside the methods. Let’s see, how to use and access these variables throughout the program.

Class variables scope - Python, Can we define/reuse variable names for multiple objects at the same time? In  Object-oriented programming allows for variables to be used at the class level or the instance level. Variables are essentially symbols that stand in for a value you’re using in a program. At the class level, variables are referred to as class variables, whereas variables at the instance level are called instance variables.

Comments
  • "python scope, I think I got it" is a terrible question title. Please try harder.
  • please phrase your answer in the form of a question
  • But basically, yes, ypu don't have things like "private" variables by default in Python (I say "by default" because one can use some introspection magic to have private/protected like behavior). Now, why would you need private variables? The convention is that methods/attributes that have their name starting with a single "_" are not public and should not be modified from outside the object. The idea of private vars for obfuscation/security is faulty by nature.
  • Is there a reason why you are not using Test(object)? So does your answer also apply to the new-type classes?
  • Wish I could give +10 upvotes! I've been Google-ing for an hour trying to find out whether b = 'meow' would be saved to the class, instance, or be function local to init. Thank you!
  • I fail to see how this improves the existing answer(s) in any way ?