Short description of the scoping rules?
scope rules in programming language
scope rules in c
python module scope
python block scope
python variable scope if
python dictionary scope
What exactly are the Python scoping rules?
If I have some code:
code1 class Foo: code2 def spam..... code3 for code4..: code5 x()
x found? Some possible choices include the list below:
- In the enclosing source file
- In the class namespace
- In the function definition
- In the for loop index variable
- Inside the for loop
Also there is the context during execution, when the function
spam is passed somewhere else. And maybe lambda functions pass a bit differently?
There must be a simple reference or algorithm somewhere. It's a confusing world for intermediate Python programmers.
Short description of the scoping rules?, There is a concise rule for Python Scope resolution, These rules are specific to variable names, not attributes. To apply these rules you need to In your example there are only 3 scopes where x will be searched in: spam’s scope – containing everything defined in code3 and code5 (as well as code4, your loop variable) The global scope – containing everything defined in code1, as well as Foo (and whatever changes after it) The builtins namespace.
Short Description of the Scoping Rules?, What exactly are the Python scoping rulesIf I have some codecode1class Foo code2 def spam code3 for code4 code5 To apply these rules you need to reference it without a period:-What is LEGB Rule:-L, Local:-Local is the names assigned within a function (def or lambda), and not declared global in that function. E, Enclosing-function locals:-It is the local scope of any and all statically enclosing functions (def or lambda), from inner to outer. G, Global (module):-
There was no thorough answer concerning Python3 time, so I made an answer here. Most of what is described here is detailed in the 4.2.2 Resolution of names of the Python 3 documentation.
As provided in other answers, there are 4 basic scopes, the LEGB, for Local, Enclosing, Global and Builtin. In addition to those, there is a special scope, the class body, which does not comprise an enclosing scope for methods defined within the class; any assignments within the class body make the variable from there on be bound in the class body.
Especially, no block statement, besides
class, create a variable scope. In Python 2 a list comprehension does not create a variable scope, however in Python 3 the loop variable within list comprehensions is created in a new scope.
To demonstrate the peculiarities of the class body
x = 0 class X(object): y = x x = x + 1 # x is now a variable z = x def method(self): print(self.x) # -> 1 print(x) # -> 0, the global x print(y) # -> NameError: global name 'y' is not defined inst = X() print(inst.x, inst.y, inst.z, x) # -> (1, 0, 1, 0)
Thus unlike in function body, you can reassign the variable to the same name in class body, to get a class variable with the same name; further lookups on this name resolve to the class variable instead.
One of the greater surprises to many newcomers to Python is that a
for loop does not create a variable scope. In Python 2 the list comprehensions do not create a scope either (while generators and dict comprehensions do!) Instead they leak the value in the function or the global scope:
>>> [ i for i in range(5) ] >>> i 4
The comprehensions can be used as a cunning (or awful if you will) way to make modifiable variables within lambda expressions in Python 2 - a lambda expression does create a variable scope, like the
def statement would, but within lambda no statements are allowed. Assignment being a statement in Python means that no variable assignments in lambda are allowed, but a list comprehension is an expression...
This behaviour has been fixed in Python 3 - no comprehension expressions or generators leak variables.
The global really means the module scope; the main python module is the
__main__; all imported modules are accessible through the
sys.modules variable; to get access to
__main__ one can use
import __main__; it is perfectly acceptable to access and assign attributes there; they will show up as variables in the global scope of the main module.
If a name is ever assigned to in the current scope (except in the class scope), it will be considered belonging to that scope, otherwise it will be considered to belonging to any enclosing scope that assigns to the variable (it might not be assigned yet, or not at all), or finally the global scope. If the variable is considered local, but it is not set yet, or has been deleted, reading the variable value will result in
UnboundLocalError, which is a subclass of
x = 5 def foobar(): print(x) # causes UnboundLocalError! x += 1 # because assignment here makes x a local variable within the function # call the function foobar()
The scope can declare that it explicitly wants to modify the global (module scope) variable, with the global keyword:
x = 5 def foobar(): global x print(x) x += 1 foobar() # -> 5 print(x) # -> 6
This also is possible even if it was shadowed in enclosing scope:
x = 5 y = 13 def make_closure(): x = 42 y = 911 def func(): global x # sees the global value print(x, y) x += 1 return func func = make_closure() func() # -> 5 911 print(x, y) # -> 6 13
In python 2 there is no easy way to modify the value in the enclosing scope; usually this is simulated by having a mutable value, such as a list with length of 1:
def make_closure(): value =  def get_next_value(): value += 1 return value return get_next_value get_next = make_closure() print(get_next()) # -> 1 print(get_next()) # -> 2
However in python 3, the
nonlocal comes to rescue:
def make_closure(): value = 0 def get_next_value(): nonlocal value value += 1 return value return get_next_value get_next = make_closure() # identical behavior to the previous example.
nonlocal documentation says that
Names listed in a nonlocal statement, unlike those listed in a global statement, must refer to pre-existing bindings in an enclosing scope (the scope in which a new binding should be created cannot be determined unambiguously).
nonlocal always refers to the innermost outer non-global scope where the name has been bound (i.e. assigned to, including used as the
for target variable, in the
with clause, or as a function parameter).
Any variable that is not deemed to be local to the current scope, or any enclosing scope, is a global variable. A global name is looked up in the module global dictionary; if not found, the global is then looked up from the builtins module; the name of the module was changed from python 2 to python 3; in python 2 it was
__builtin__ and in python 3 it is now called
builtins. If you assign to an attribute of builtins module, it will be visible thereafter to any module as a readable global variable, unless that module shadows them with its own global variable with the same name.
Reading the builtin module can also be useful; suppose that you want the python 3 style print function in some parts of file, but other parts of file still use the
import __builtin__ print3 = __builtin__.__dict__['print']
from __future__ import print_function actually does not import the
Scope Rules, The scope rules answer these questions. In fact, scope rules tell us if an entity (i.e., variable, parameter and function) is "visible" or accessible at certain places. Scope rules define the visibility rules for names in a programming language. What if you have references to a variable named k in different parts of the program? Do these refer to the same variable or to different ones? Most languages, including Algol, Ada, C, Pascal, Scheme, and Haskell, are statically scoped. A block defines a new scope. Variables can be declared in that scope, and aren't visible from the outside.
The scoping rules for Python 2.x have been outlined already in other answers. The only thing I would add is that in Python 3.0, there is also the concept of a non-local scope (indicated by the 'nonlocal' keyword). This allows you to access outer scopes directly, and opens up the ability to do some neat tricks, including lexical closures (without ugly hacks involving mutable objects).
EDIT: Here's the PEP with more information on this.
Scope (computer science), Next: Independent Scopes Up: Procedures Previous: Commenting a Procedure: description. Scoping Rules. The scope of a name (variable names, data The scope can declare that it explicitly wants to modify the global (module scope) variable, with the global keyword: x = 5 def foobar(): global x print(x) # -> 5 x += 1 foobar() print(x) # -> 6
A slightly more complete example of scope:
from __future__ import print_function # for python 2 support x = 100 print("1. Global x:", x) class Test(object): y = x print("2. Enclosed y:", y) x = x + 1 print("3. Enclosed x:", x) def method(self): print("4. Enclosed self.x", self.x) print("5. Global x", x) try: print(y) except NameError as e: print("6.", e) def method_local_ref(self): try: print(x) except UnboundLocalError as e: print("7.", e) x = 200 # causing 7 because has same name print("8. Local x", x) inst = Test() inst.method() inst.method_local_ref()
1. Global x: 100 2. Enclosed y: 100 3. Enclosed x: 101 4. Enclosed self.x 101 5. Global x 100 6. global name 'y' is not defined 7. local variable 'x' referenced before assignment 8. Local x 200
Scoping Rules, Short Description of the Scoping Rules? - Actually, a terse rule for Python Scope resolution, from Learning Python, 3rd. Ed.. (These rules area Scoping Rules. The scope of a name (variable names, data structure names, procedure names) is the part of the program within which the name can be used. > x := 5: > x := x * 99: > y := z: are perfectly digestible by the Darwin system.
[100% Working Code], 15.7 Summary. Objective functions can be “built” which contain all of the necessary data for evaluating the function; No need to carry around long argument lists Use. Scope is an important component of name resolution, which is in turn fundamental to language semantics.Name resolution (including scope) varies between programming languages, and within a programming language, varies by type of entity; the rules for scope are called scope rules or scoping rules.
15 Scoping Rules of R, Summary of Scope Rules. 11/04/2016; 2 minutes to read. +2. In this article. Constructor initializers; Global names; Qualified names; Function parameter names C - Scope Rules A scope in any programming is a region of the program where a defined variable can have its existence and beyond that variable it cannot be accessed. There are three places where variables can be declared in C programming language − Inside a function or a block which is called local variables.
Summary of Scope Rules, C scope rules can be covered under the following two categories. These scope doesnot include the function definition, but just the function prototype. Example Product scope description: The characteristics of the products, services, and/or results your project will produce. Acceptance criteria: The conditions that must be met before project deliverables are accepted. Deliverables: The products, services, and/or results your project will produce
- The scoping rules are described fairly tersely — but also completely — in the Python documentation: docs.python.org/3/reference/….
- As a caveat to Global access - reading a global variable can happen without explicit declaration, but writing to it without declaring global(var_name) will instead create a new local instance.
- Actually @Peter,
global(var_name)is syntactically incorrect. The correct syntax would be
global var_namewithout parentheses. You have a valid point though.
- If so, then why isn't foo's "y" variable visible to "bar" below:
>>> def foo(x): ... y = x ... def bar(z): ... y = z ... bar(5) ... print x,y ... >>> foo(3) 3 3
- @Jonathan: Because each
yis being written to and there are no
global ydeclarations -- see @Peter's comment.
- @LakshmanPrasad It falls into "E", but has one special behaviour that's worth mentioning: it is a class variable, so it is a "global" among it's objects. Assigning to it will lead to unpredicted and hard to debug issues if you don't know what you're doing.
- This is great answer. However, I think that the differences between
method_local_refshould be highlighted.
methodis able to access the global variable and print it as in
5. Global x. But
method_local_refcannot because later on it defines a local variable with that same name. You can test this by removing the
x = 200line and see the difference
- @brianray: What about z?
- @kiril I added a note about that
- @MalikA.Rumi I removed z as it wasn't interesting
- Surprisingly, this is the only clear explanation of Python scopes, that I could find on all of SO. Simply using a very basic example. Thanks!
- This is out of date. Since 2.1 (7 years ago) there are more than two scopes, as nested functions introduce new scopes, so a function within a function will have access to its local scope, the enclosing functions scope, and global scope (also builtins).
- I'm sorry, this is no longer the case.
Python has two namespaces available. Global and local-to-something.