Pass many list parameter to a query in Python

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I have three lists:

countries=['AUSTRALIA', 'FRANCE', 'ITALY']
segments=['little','medium','big','huge']
costumers = ['ERIK','FRANK','BOB', 'JANE']

I have to write something like this:

cursor.execute("SELECT COUNTRY, SEGMENT, CUSTOMER, VALUE
WHERE COUNTRY IN ?, SEGMENT IN ?, VALUE IN ?, (countries, segments, costumers))

Any idea? The three lists may vary in terms of number of components for each list.

Thanks in advance!

This can be solved in the following way:

cursor.execute("SELECT country, segment, customer, value" +
               "WHERE country IN %(1)s, SEGMENT IN %(2)s, VALUE IN %(3)s",
               {"1": tuple(countries), "2": tuple(segments), "3": tuple(customers)})

This ensures you still have the protection from SQL injections you had earlier. It also doesn't fail on strings.

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You can do something like this:

countries=['AUSTRALIA', 'FRANCE', 'ITALY']
segments=['little','medium','big','huge']
costumers = ['ERIK','FRANK','BOB', 'JANE']

query = ("SELECT COUNTRY, SEGMENT, CUSTOMER, VALUE "
         " WHERE COUNTRY IN ('{}') "
         " AND SEGMENT IN ('{}') "
         " AND VALUE IN ('{}')").format(countries, segments, costumers)
cursor.execute(query)

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This might look like more code than the other solutions which directly pass in values using string formatting, but it is much safer. Read up on SQL injection to understand why.

The difficulty in passing values as parameters (much safer than string formatting) is that the query has to look something like this before you can pass in parameters (the number of ?s varies depending on number of parameters to be passed in):

"SELECT COUNTRY, SEGMENT, CUSTOMER, VALUE FROM SOME_TABLE WHERE COUNTRY IN (?, ?, ?) AND SEGMENT IN (?, ?, ?) AND VALUE IN (?, ?, ?)"

So you need to use string formatting to pass the appropriate number of ? placeholders:

countries=['AUSTRALIA', 'FRANCE', 'ITALY']
segments=['little','medium','big','huge']
customers = ['ERIK','FRANK','BOB', 'JANE']
country_placeholders = ','.join('?' for i in range(len(countries)))
segment_placeholders = ','.join('?' for i in range(len(segments)))
customer_placeholders = ','.join('?' for i in range(len(customers)))
query = """
SELECT COUNTRY, SEGMENT, CUSTOMER, VALUE FROM SOME_TABLE WHERE COUNTRY IN ({}) AND SEGMENT IN ({}) AND VALUE IN ({})
""".format(country_placeholders, segment_placeholders, customer_placeholders)

This gives you the following query template:

"SELECT COUNTRY, SEGMENT, CUSTOMER, VALUE FROM SOME_TABLE WHERE COUNTRY IN (?,?,?) AND SEGMENT IN (?,?,?,?) AND VALUE IN (?,?,?,?)"

Now you just need to execute and pass your parameters:

params = tuple(countries + segments + customers)
cursor.execute(query, params)

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Comments
  • will this internally take care of converting list into comma separated values?
  • Yes, as long as the lists are not empty.
  • nice, i was not aware of this. my upvotes for today are finished. will definitely upvote this tomorrow.
  • this is not scalable. this will expect query to be updated every time there is a change in countries, segments ot customers